Channel Island Slave Labourers ’40-45

Amidst the jaw-dropping beauty that are the islands of Guernsey & Alderney today, it is sometimes hard to take on-board that during the German Occupation between the years 1940 & 1945, in addition to the hardships suffered by the islanders cut-off from the mainland and subject to German military law, another group of individuals were finding these times even tougher and often unimaginably so. These were the German’s political prisoners shipped into Alderney as slave labourers from various parts of Occupied Europe to work on the planned programme of heavy fortification of these stunning British islands under the Third Reich’s military engineering arm, the Organisation Todt.

Indeed it is this and the tragic fate of three Jewish Guernsey women that still provides a sad and at times slightly murky undercurrent to this most intriguing of war-time stories and the facts of the matter are often further muddied by the sheer sensationalism that still often surrounds the fates of these poor unfortunate slave labourers. Stories, some repeated in print as if Gospel, that usually, (and to the intense annoyance & utter distaste of those of us trying to reflect the accurate story) involved slave labourers being ‘brutally murdered by their German guards or OT overseers and either thrown into the concrete foundations of the gun emplacements, towers & underground tunnels or being flung from the high cliffs on Guernsey & Alderney’s coasts!’

These along with many similar sensational stories are continually being dreamed up by budding historical authors and then oft-repeated by conspiracy theorists; however whilst it is beyond dispute that over 100 slave labourers did die in the course of the construction of the massive concrete fortifications that Hitler decreed be built across the Bailiwick to secure these islands from a British counter-attack, (and the conditions under which they were held & worked in were often extremely unpleasant), such on-going stories of wholesale slaughter of these prisoners is pure fantasy and certainly not helpful when viewed in a historical context.

However to return to the story of the 3 Jewish women on Guernsey, (Marianne Grunfeld, Auguste Spitz & Therese Steiner), who were eventually to be transported to Germany and their fate in the concentration camp of Auschwitz-Birkenau sealed, German Occupation Museum proprietor Richard Heaume MBE has a small room at his famous museum dedicated to this darker side of the German occupation. Here, in addition to having on display a pair of the evocative blue & white striped concentration camp suits as worn by the slave labourers, he also commissioned a special display some years back by talented mainland sculptor Jennifer Anne Snell, a former Channel Islander herself.

The actual sculpture itself is a very evocative design of 3 suitcases, something that many island deportees, both those evacuated from the Bailiwick to the mainland in 1940 and those later sent to Biberach internment camp in Germany later in the war, will instantly recall and remember. Seeing this very simple memorial in his small room, (which is sparsely decked out like the original cell of the old island prison at in St James Street in St Peter Port), displayed alongside the infamous concentration camp suits is certainly a most thought-provoking moment. As such a visit to Richard’s Occupation museum in the Parish of Forest would not be complete without spending a contemplative moment or two in this ‘cell’ to see the dark side of German military rule in WW-II.

Sadly elsewhere on the island a most embarrassing & potentially insulting act was to later take place which I personally still feel a great sadness over in as much as I believe it was always politically-motivated and should never have happened. During the years that I worked as Media Consultant to ‘Fortress Guernsey’ under the superb leadership of Major Evan Ozanne, (in the wake of my television documentary Channel Islands Occupied), we were always more than aware of the Slave Labour questionAs such it was something all of us involved in this specific aspect of Channel Islands war-time history trod very softly and very sympathetically around…

Indeed a part of my media spokesman’s job was to ensure that UK and International journalists and film-makers coming to Guernsey would tell the correct story and not run away with the ‘Sunday tabloid’ sensationalist stories about the aforementioned labourers being killed and thrown into the fortifications’ footings etc.. and many’s the time during my 5 year tenure that I had to ‘ride shot-gun’ on an unfolding magazine story or film to ensure this did not happen..!

As a part of our work, it was deemed a priority by Major Ozanne that a roll-call of all slave labourers that died in the Bailiwick under German Occupation finally be remembered and so, in league with the Royal British Legion-Guernsey and the island’s Occupation Society, (and following much research by Major Ozanne himself), eventually a list of 110 known foreign workers from former German military medical records was drawn up and he set about contacting the Embassies in each of the countries representing these workers.

Following a lengthy diplomatic process, a gold & granite plaque was commissioned in 1999 and unveiled amidst an emotional ceremony on White Rock in St Peter Port’s harbour, a service that I was honoured to be invited to. With the 110 traced names finally honoured in front of many Ambassadors & Charges d’Affaires from the countries involved, members of the press looked on and duly reported this hard won-achievement.

However it was all to end in an embarrassing farce thanks to the complaint of one man, a former Dutchman then living on Guernsey, who maintained he was a forced labourer working for the Organisation Todt on Guernsey & Alderney… a matter that has, alledgedly, never truly been established by the relevant authorities and with certain island politicians merely accepting his word without ever going to the trouble of ascertaining his exact bone fides in this matter!

Major Ozanne takes up the story..: “The plaque was unveiled & blessed by the clergy, but some time later a former O.T. worker Gilbert van Grieken complained that 10 German workers we had honoured also had headstones at the Military Cemetery at Fort George. With the exception of one named Berganski and another who died at sea, the 8 remaining bodies were commemorated in the German cemetery, but we don’t know whether these men were O.T. overseers or German nationals coerced into working for the military against their will”.

Such was the negative publicity generated by Mr van Greiken that the States capitulated and ordered the removal of the plaque leaving a blank wall down at the harbour. We then waited in vain to see if a new memorial would be commissioned by the States commemorating all-but-the 10 German names Mr Greiken objected to, or whether the confirmed German forced labourer Mr Berganski and the worker lost at sea would be the two lone German names left on a new plaque, possibly with the addition of a Luxembourger who later came to light!

However, all these various parameters notwithstanding, the permanently unanswered question remains in my mind as to how such an important war-time plaque commemorating so many innocent men on Guernsey and which had been consecrated by the clergy and officially unveiled in a ceremony with full diplomatic courtesies being extended, could simply have been removed from public view without a thorough official investigation beforehand..?

So it appears Mr van Greiken lodged a complaint and, (is the way of the world these days), the civil servants jumped straight into action on the say-so of one man, whose war record, it now transpires, is open to some speculation or interpretation! So act first then ask questions later…except it seems no questions ever were!

As Major Ozanne put it: “I regret the plaque was removed because of insular attitudes as in the end, who is to judge? I personally believe that all of these men honoured were either forced or cajoled into working for the Germans; now all of these workers names have been removed on the accusations of just one man…how can this be just? Hopefully whatever the eventual outcome of the plaques’ removal a decision will eventually be made as to what form a replacement memorial will take and indeed how the remaining 102 of Guernsey’s known dead foreign labourers will be honoured as per the original hopes of Fortress Guernsey, the Guernsey Branch of the British Legion and the Occupation Society back in 1999”… but some 15 years, on we are still waiting..!      

           Copyright@Brian Matthews 2013

Third Reich Music in ‘Schindler’s List’

Another welcome showing for this incredible movie on terrestrial television this week, however I must admit that, a little embarrassingly, it was a long time until I finally saw Schindler’s List (especially given the historical field in which Tomahawk Films & I both work); but I hasten to say that it wasn’t for any reasons of ignorance that I just could not bring myself to watch it, but the fact that I did not want to put myself through ‘another concentration camp film drama’…

It was not many years ago that I was asked to narrate a series of documentaries on the Nazi Concentration Camps: Auschwitz-Birkenau, Sobibor, Dachau, Mauthausen, Treblinka, Ravensbrück, Majdanek, Bergen-Belsen, Oranienburg, Buchenwald, Theresienstadt, Sachsenhausen… the infamous names just kept coming…. and the producer asked that I ‘narrate to picture’, something I don’t do that often, preferring to read a script ‘dry’ so I can fully take in and concentrate on the words that have been so carefully written.

In fact the last time I narrated to picture was for a superb 36-part holiday series on The Travel Channel many moons ago where, sadly not having been on location with the crew, I was reduced to sitting, mid-January, in a cold & draughty voice-over booth in a snowy Hampshire, narrating over some utterly enticing pictures of tropical destinations: the Bahamas, Grenada, St Kitts, the Cayman Islands, Turks & Caicos, Trinidad & Tobago, Martinique, Guadaloupe… all tantalising long, lingering shots of bikini-clad beauties, warm azure seas, golden sandy beaches all laid our beneath a legion of tall palm-trees…enough to make you weep as hour after hour of stunning locations unfolded before me and my frozen feet, as I beavered away adding ‘mellifluous tones’ to these oh-so seductive pictures….

However, with the concentration camp documentaries it was another matter entirely as I tried to remain professionally focussed on narrating some very well written scripts but continuously having to look up at the monitor for timings only to keep seeing some pretty grim images…and then some..!

I love doing voice-overs, but this was certainly not one of my easiest nor the most enjoyable of narrating jobs and upon its completion I made a mental note not to watch any more ‘detailed’ concentration camp footage again, if I could help it… thus that previous resistance to sitting through ‘Schindler’s List’ and have to re-live, (or so I imagined), all that harrowing footage once more..!

But how wrong I was for working here in the office late one evening with the television on purely for company in the background, this incredible movie suddenly appeared on screen without prior warning but, too engrossed in the script I was editing at the time, I did not bother to get up from my computer to switch the monitor off. But, oh boy, am I glad I was too absorbed, (or simply too lazy!), to do so for after a very short period I became aware of this incredible black & white movie unfolding before me; then I looked up and became engrossed and then my script-editing stopped.. very shortly after that I was totally hooked… what a superb example of the historical movie-makers‘ art this film is…beautifully shot, beautifully told & beautifully acted…

A 1993 Universal Pictures movie directed by the legendary Steven Spielberg and shot in glorious, evocative monochrome and starring Liam Neeson, Sir Ben Kingsley and Ralph Fiennes, this was a superb take on the true story of Oskar Schindler, a greedy & utterly vain German businessman who became an unlikely saviour during the Third Reich when he turned his munitions factory into a safe-haven for Jews… and over the course of the Second World War he managed, somehow, to save the lives of over 1,000 Jews from a terrible death in the gas-chambers at the Auschwitz-Birkenau concentration camp.

With commissioned music composed by John Williams, the evocative German period music soundtracks come, most fittingly, first in the shape of Mimi Thoma’s emotional Mamatschi’ as written by Oskar Schima.

This is then followed by a very clever and most welcome appearance of Werner Bachmann’s moving ‘Gute Nacht Mutter’ delivered most powerfully by the incredible bass-voice from the legend that was Wilhelm Strienz… the fascinating story of which is explained a little more in depth in one of my previous Tomahawk Films Blogs

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013