Music in the German Occupied Channel Islands 1940-45…

As the generous readers of my Blog for Tomahawk Films will have realised, the German Occupation of the British Channel Islands between 1940 and 1945, is, alongside my passion for the German Soldier Song and the Military Music of the Third Reich, (an important & integral part of both my own and indeed Tomahawk’s personal & professional life, in addition to producing my television documentary Channel Islands Occupied), still something I love writing about, at the drop of a hat..!

So I thought I would also pen another Blog combining the two and write something on the history of the German military musical presence in those beautiful islands between 1940 and the occupying forces’ surrender 1945 and have actually subbed the ‘Channel Islands Occupation’ chapter from my book The Military Music & Bandsmen of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-45 as it offers some corking original archival photographs!

Sadly, Tomahawk Films and I have decided not to republish this ‘mighty tome’, for though it has been incredibly well received.. thanks to all that bought a copy..the  enormous cost of re-printing is such that we have decided not to funnel such another huge amount of money into books as that it is not our core business..

However as many fellow military enthusiasts (and indeed fellow lovers of these Crown Dependent pieces of heaven), already know, the Channel Islands were the only British soil to be occupied by the forces of Nazi Germany during the Second World and make for one of the of the most amazing stories of the Second World War.

By dint of this, during that Nazi occupation there were actually 2 German military bands stationed on the two main islands (out of the total eight Channel  Islands): one drawn from the army:  Pionierbattalion 15, garrisoned on Guernsey, and the other being provided by the Luftwaffe’s 40th Regiment, Flak Artillery, which primarily performed on Jersey.

The story of that Second World War occupation offers the incredible imagery of WW-II German Musikkorps performing on British soil alongside other rare and almost unimaginable images of German Forces on British soil and this sadly over-looked story is a historical study all of its own when it comes to the Second World War…

When the entire German garrison across the five main Channel Islands ultimately surrendered in 1945, their musical instruments, song books and many musical accoutrements were left behind intact and can be seen today on display in some of the superb island occupation museums. In addition, with the recent location of a number of rare photographs of these German military bands actually performing on British soil, it is possible to take a ‘then and now’ look at them and witness those instruments being played during the occupation:

The Channel Islands are some of the most beautiful, peaceful and evocative to be found anywhere in the world, but it wasn’t always that way, and a half century ago the picture told a very different story..:

In the first months of the Second World War, following Hitler’s lightning war against Poland, an uneasy peace settled over Europe, and to the Channel Islanders the problems on the continent seemed another life away. Besides, what would Hitler want with the Channel Islands anyway?  However, in the spring of 1940 aircraft of the Luftwaffe began to appear in the skies above the islands, and the authorities introduced the first air-raid precautions; then on May 10th 1940, as Hitler launched his forces against the Low Countries and the BEF began its retreat to Dunkirk, it was just a matter of time before France fell and Adolf Hitler’s eyes would then turn to his next target… Britain!

On June 19th 1940 the British government announced that the defence of the Channel Islands was no longer justified and withdrew the garrison; just 3 days later, France surrendered and fearing German invasion to be imminent, some 34,000 Channel Islanders left for mainland Britain, leaving a total population of 50,000 to face the unknown. But far from showing disinterest, Adolf Hitler knew that capturing a piece of Britain would not only provide excellent propaganda but give him an additional base from which to launch his air and sea attack on the British mainland.

Wrongly advised by German Intelligence that the islands were still heavily defended, 6 fully-laden Heinkel IIIs set a course from their bases in Northern France on June 28th and, mistaking a line of tomato lorries for a troop convoy, bombed Guernsey’s St Peter Port harbour, killing 30 civilians, before flying on to strafe St Helier in Jersey, killing a further nine islanders.

Then on June 30th the German bombers returned, dropping written ultimatums demanding the unconditional surrender of all islands. Later the same day a lone reconnaissance Dornier 17 landed at Jersey’s airport, the pilot, 25 year-old Luftwaffe-Leutnant Richard Kern, having the dubious honour of becoming the first German occupier setting foot on British soil.

Then came the first Ju-52 transports ferrying the advanced troops who, believing Britain was only days from invasion, settled in quickly under strict orders from Hitler (who still hoped for a settlement with Britain) to treat all islanders with respect. Nevertheless, communications between the islands and mainland Britain were immediately severed, batteries of flak-guns were sited, slit trenches dug and all Union flags were hauled down and replaced by the swastika’d Reichkriegsflagge.

Whilst German Military Forces under the command of Feldkommandantur (Field Command – FK) 515 co-operated with the local government and police forces, all Channel Island affairs now fell directly under the command of Berlin, thus beginning six years of what Guernseyman Frank Stroobant was to call a ‘benign occupation’.

With the invasion of Britain abandoned, Hitler feared the Allies would launch an all-out attack to recapture the islands, and they soon began to reverberate to the sounds of shovels & concrete mixers as plans for their defence from air and sea attack were put into operation. Using forced labourers from Eastern Europe under the direction of the Organisation Todt (comprising German civilian technicians & labourers), massive flak and coastal gun batteries were built across the three main islands, turning them into the most heavily fortified part of Hitler’s Atlantic Wall…

Guernsey & Jersey were initially garrisoned from July 1940 by units attached to the German 216th Infantry Division, plus Machine Gun Battalion No.16 on Guernsey and Panzerjäger Battalion No. 652 on Jersey. However, with Hitler’s attack on Russia, the 216th was earmarked for the Eastern Front, and in the Summer of 1941 the 319th Infantry Division (who had already seen action in Poland and France) was ordered to the islands to take over the defence of Guernsey & Jersey, whilst the 83rd Infantry Division was sent to Alderney. The 83rd Division then found itself despatched to Russia at the end of 1941, and the 319th took over the garrisoning of all three main islands.

Alderney, with its civilian population having been totally evacuated by the German military, was an unpopular posting, so FK-515 ordered a 3-month garrison rotation with army units from Guernsey and Luftwaffe flak units from France, though Kriegsmarine units, (for some reason), were exempted from this rotation.

Mobile armour was provided by 17 captured French Char-B tanks on Jersey and 19 to Guernsey under the command of Panzerabteilung 213, whilst anti-aircraft firepower arrived in the shape of Luftwaffe Flak Regiment No.39 on Guernsey and No.40 on Jersey. The Kriegsmarine initially oversaw command of all army and naval coastal artillery batteries from March 1941, until they merged in 1943 to form Heeresküstenartillerieregt (Army Coastal Artillery Regiment) 1265.

As the war slowly turned against Hitler, his Naval High Seas Fleet found itself confined to their harbours in Germany by increasing Allied activity. As a result, the Kriegsmarine presence in the Channel Islands mushroomed, as surplus German naval manpower from Kiel, Hamburg and Wilhelmshaven was transferred in to boost the size of the garrison. Indeed Jersey’s last Kommandant was a senior Kriegsmarine officer, Vice-Admiral Huffmeier.

At the height of the Occupation in May 1943, some 26,800 German troops garrisoned the islands: 13,000 on Guernsey, 10,000 on Jersey & 3,800 on Alderney, including the Army Mobile Anti-tank Battalion 450; Luftwaffe Long Range Reconnaissance Group 123 & Fighter Group 53; Army Ost-Bataillon 823 & 643 (captured Georgians who changed sides and the Russian Army of Liberation); SS-Baubrigagde 1 and the  Kriegsmarine’s 2nd Patrol Boat Flotilla & 24th & 46th Minesweeping Flotillas.

Additional units included fortress construction battalions, bridge, railway & airfield construction companies, combat engineers, medical, veterinary, field-police, signals, customs, field- post and the Reichsarbeitsdienst and NS Kraftfahrkorps…

In fact an incredible assortment of manpower was crammed into the relatively small space of the three main Channel Islands, plus Sark, and all needing some form of entertainment in their off-duty hours; to this end the island’s civilian cinemas provided one form of distraction, as did the soldier’s own ‘clubs’, the Soldatenheime (Soldiers’ homes) in St Helier and St Peter Port.

However, it befell the lot of the two military bands of the Luftwaffe and the Heer to provide light relief for both the German garrisons and the civilian population alike, and their concerts, many in the open-air, proved to be very popular, so much so that one wartime occupation edition of the Guernsey Evening Press in July 1943 ran a terrific story on Gerhard Anders, Obermusikmeister of Army Musikkorps Pionierbataillon 15:

“Thousands of Sarnians visited Candie Gardens on summer evenings last year to listen to the German Regimental Orchestra under the direction of Gerhard Anders.

Obermusikmeister Anders is himself a personality and  our music critic ‘Jubal’ contributes a pen-picture of this gifted composer & musician, who intends to honour Guernsey with a composition on the island..”

Meet Bandmaster Gerhard Anders

“He is young, genial; has bright eyes that flash with the genius of music and in the two years he has been with us in Guernsey, training his accomplished military band of 30 musicians, he has acquired English, to make himself understood, thus adding another language to his German.

Bandmaster Anders was the conductor of Berlin’s Operetta Theatre Orchestra of 80 musicians before the war, and his name is known throughout Germany as that of a young composer rising to fame. The upheaval of our time finds him writing band scores and composing music at his residence, ‘Cote des Vauxlaurens’, Cambridge Park, or conducting his devoted band at Les Cotils for two hours each morning in all genres of music”.

‘Jubal’, goes on to write (in very quaint English as if the Guernsey patois was his first language and English second) that Anders was always noting down ideas for future scores in a series of little blue books that were always to be seen ‘peeping out of his tunic pockets’ and that his army band, Pionierbataillon 15, had ‘over a  thousand pieces in their repertoire to choose from’.

However, whilst Anders was said to ‘find joy in helping Guernsey musicians in providing strings for their orchestras’, ‘Jubal’ (aka William ‘Billy’ Vaudin, the Guernsey Press’ chief reporter), noted that he ‘found great difficulty in obtaining suitable quality manuscripts for scoring’ as the on-going occupation resulted in a lessening of German and French supplies to the military garrison.

The long awaited relief of the Channel Islands, expected after the Allied invasion of Normandy, failed to materialise; instead the battle of France raged on and with the fall of St Malo the first of 600 wounded German soldiers arrived for treatment in the German underground hospitals on Guernsey & Jersey.

Meanwhile the Allied advance continued across North-West Europe and the islands were effectively by-passed; islanders and Germans alike were now cut-off and facing a very tough winter of 1944/45, existing on near-starvation rations and managing to hold on just long enough until the arrival of the Red Cross ship SS Vega in December 1944 with desperately needed food and supplies.

The final Allied drive into Germany continued and the death knell of the Third Reich was eventually sounded when on May 8th 1945 the Royal Navy’s HMS Bulldog and HMS Beagle left Plymouth to rendezvous with the Germans off Guernsey’s St Peter Port.

The islands’ Kommandant, Vice-Admiral Huffmeier, initially held out for an armistice, but on the following day, May 9th 1945, capitulated and surrendered the German military garrisons of Guernsey, Jersey and Alderney without a shot being fired!  (Incidentally the ‘bristling’ young Nazi officer pictured sitting, right, here in the surrender signing aboard HMS Bulldog, was later believed to have rejoined the new post-war German Bundesmarine, eventually becoming a very senior German Naval attache working within NATO!)

Meanwhile the musical instruments and sheet music of Guernsey’s army and Jersey’s Luftwaffe bands simply remained in their billets as the musicians themselves marched into captivity; after liberation, the islanders soon found them, and they were subsequently distributed to various island orchestras such as the Boys’ Brigade and Salvation Army bands in the following first months of peace.

On Alderney, however, a number of bandsmen found themselves prisoners-of-war and held back to help with the massive mine and defence clearance operation that took place in the years immediately following the island’s liberation. This was a most hazardous undertaking and sadly several former German garrison members were killed whilst attempting the recovery of many hidden mines & booby-trap bombs; but this task was finally accomplished and in 1947 the remaining German POWs performed a concert for the island’s returning civilian population.

Nothing is known of the fate of Heeres-Obermusikmeister Gerhard Anders, (though the Guernsey Press’ music critic & organ music aficionado, Billy ‘Jubal’ Vaudin, retired from the newspaper in 1948… and died in 1955 at the age of 73).

However, a footnote to the German occupation of Alderney was heard by myself in the early Summer of 1998, when Hans Schiffer, a former Kriegsmarine signals teletype operator at the former German Naval Signals Headquarters at St Jacques in St Peter Port, Guernsey, returned as the guest of honour at the opening of the newly refurbished bunker (and HQ of Guernsey’s German Occupation Society), under the island’s former ‘Fortress Guernsey’ initiative that I helped publicise:

During the celebrations, Herr Schiffer was heard to mention, when being interviewed on the possible whereabouts of former German service personnel based in the islands during the Occupation, that he had recognised one of the former Luftwaffe musicians he had previously seen performing for the troops on Alderney actually playing in a jazz-band in Düsseldorf in 1958… who’d have thought eh?

Copyright  @ Brian Matthews 2013

Theft from Guernsey’s German Occupation Museum…

As I alluded to in a previous Tomahawk Film’s Blog, in recent years an unfortunate shadow has been cast over the valiant efforts to preserve Guernsey’s German war-time history through the despicable theft of one of the Occupation Museum’s most treasured exhibits several years ago…

The steel helmet of former German Harbourmaster Kapitan Obermeyer was stolen from a locked glass-case in the central display room of the museum and was the only item taken, despite other more valuable artefacts being displayed in the case, namely the helmet of the Channel Island’s Kommandant, General Graf von Schmettow, leading owner & proprietor Richard Heaume MBE to believe that it was stolen specifically to order on behalf of a steel helmet buff somewhere within the III Reich collecting fraternity.

Various stories are circulating as to whom might be responsible but what is known is that a visitor from a nearby island was arrested on suspicion of involvement and was questioned by that island’s police but released through lack of evidence. However it is believed in some quarters that the helmet may still be on that neighbouring island, perhaps because its planned onward journey to an unscrupulous collector somewhere in the world was interrupted by media focus on this tragic case at the time…

Richard takes up the story:  “Whoever was responsible got into the locked glass-case without breaking it and even though the helmet was hanging up high, managed to get it down and spirit it away without us noticing anything untoward until later in the day. I am absolutely devastated at this loss as the helmet is of the greatest importance to me and my museum, for we have had it on display since 1966.

It is instantly noticeable as it is a large size, mint condition, double-decal marine artillery helmet in pre-war apple green; inside is written Kapt. Obermeyer, so if any collectors or dealers are subsequently offered this item, they would recognise it as being from our museum. I offered a reward at the time for any news and have put up a £500 reward, (approx. 700 dollars), for any new information leading to its safe return to the museum and I’d like to renew that appeal via Tomahawk Film’s Blog if I could..?”

Kapitan Obermeyer was born in Hamburg and served in the pre-war German Merchant Marine, then between the years 1940-45, he served as Hafenkommandant in Guernsey, working alongside the local Guernsey Harbourmaster Captain Franklen. Both had served in the square-rigger sailing ships of old and actually discovered that they had met years before when their two vessels had tied up alongside each other in Hamburg’s harbour.  According to Richard’s research, Obermeyer was a typical ‘old sea-dog’ who liked his drink & was a very hospitable & friendly chap along with it!

Certainly a Nazi, he played very fair with the local fishermen to whom he issued fishing permits from the town’s Crown Hotel, which he made his office when not out on the Quay. Throughout the occupation Kapitan Obermeyer lived in a house on the Strand, later used as a Kriegsmarine Hospital in 1944, and it was in this house that his steel helmet and gas-mask were left and later found after Guernsey’s liberation in May 1945.

This particularly underhand and upsetting theft, which has denied visitors to Richard’s museum the chance of viewing an important helmet in the island’s history in addition to forcing him to invest in advanced security measures, is something that the trusting and welcoming Channel Island of Guernsey should never have had to consider.

Collectors and enthusiasts who may not have had the opportunity of enjoying Guernsey’s German Occupation Museum can however view many of Richard’s ultra-rare and much prized artefacts, including Kapitan Obermeyer’s helmet, in my TV documentary, ‘Channel Islands Occupied’ which is available both from the Tomahawk Films’ website and through Richard’s museum itself, where he also runs a 20’ highlighted version of the longer 50’ documentary in his little cinema..

At the time of writing this Blog, valiant efforts to trace Kapitan Obermeyer’s steel helmet are still on-going with local whispers on the ground lending additional credence to the belief that the helmet may indeed still be ‘hiding out’ somewhere in the islands, so fuelling fervent hopes that it may be recovered at some point in the future.

However there is a much more cheerful note for the museum and exciting news for many collectors still holding fast to the belief that there are still wonderful items of III Reich militaria to be found hiding in lofts & attics:  Richard was presented with a superb example of a Wehrmacht trumpet banner issued to Pionier-Battailon 15, who were the resident army Musikkorps in the Bailiwick between 1940 and 1945 and I’m delighted to say he kindly allowed me to include a  photograph of this beautiful banner in my book The Military Music and Bandsmen of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933 to 1945.

Originally ‘liberated’ by a small boy in the early years of the German occupation when members of the band where called away from an official concert in the town’s Candie Gardens to an incident down in the harbour at St Peter Port, this ornate black and silver banner has lain quietly in the boys’ family home since war’s end. Believed to be one of only two that may still exist on Guernsey, this exciting example has made a welcome appearance and has been accepted by the Occupation Museum on temporary loan, providing a small piece of cheer in the wake of the despicable and disgraceful helmet theft.

In closing this particular Blog I’d like, on Richard’s behalf, to appeal to any collector who might possibly have heard something on the grapevine and therefore might have any helpful leads or news as a result as to the whereabouts of Kapt. Obermeyer’s steel helmet. It is still out there hiding somewhere and anybody with any leads are invited to contact Richard Heaume MBE directly at the German Occupation Museum, Forest, Guernsey, Channel Islands GY8 OBG… thank you!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013