Musikschulen für Jugend und Volk…

During the Third Reich, the Hitlerjugend evolved into a very powerful political youth organisation whose leadership, the Reichsjugendführung (RJF), soon began to control & direct every aspect of music, from the recruitment of musicians and the selection of songs & music, to setting & laying down the very strict standards required for German musical education.

However, the RJF realised that to achieve its aims a completely new generation of politically motivated young musicians had to be raised & trained from scratch. So between 1934 and 1936, detailed plans were developed & implemented for the creation of ‘Musikschulen für Jugend und Volk’ (Music Schools for Youth & People).

It was seen as vital that these new musicians be taught by the ‘right’ minds and so this period also saw the creation of a national state music school, the Staatliche Musikschule Berlin, for the training of youth orchestral group leaders in the required subjects: choir schooling, instrumentation, cultural & educational policy and the theory of civilian & military music.

So, in the pre-war years, gifted young people at regional & national levels within the HJ were sent to the Musikschulen für Jugend und Volk and the Staatliche Musikschule Berlin, with many students receiving grants from the Department for Schooling & Culture within the RJF. From this early musical & political education within the Third Reich would come many highly talented future Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS military bandsmen, conductors & musical directors.

In order to show off its achievements, further integrate music into civilian German life and attract additional high quality musical recruits, the RJF regularly organised music festivals at both regional & national level across the Reich! Such national events, known as Reichsmusiktage der HJ, took place at Erfurt in 1935, Braunschweig in 1936, Stuttgart in 1937, Weimar in 1938 and Leipzig in 1939. Now that the Hitlerjugend had established its musical credentials and successfully taken control over all aspects of youth musical education, many well-known and sympathetic musicians & performers were invited to these, by now, famous events.

Guests included pianist Elly Ney, who observed that “music and culture were in the best hands within the HJ because the youth trusts its leaders without reservation and because their leaders have adopted Hitler’s idealistic aims are a living example to those who lead…”

However, whilst not all musicians throughout the Reich were quite as effusive as Elly Ney in their support, most, nevertheless, appreciated the prominence and backing being given to music, the level of instruction and training being offered and the enthusiasm with which it was being received by the nation’s youth! Accordingly many renowned musicians such as violinist Georg Kulemkampff, pianist Edwin Fischer, conductor Hermann Abendroth, and several ensembles including the Dresden String Quartet, were happy to join Elly Ney in performing at a series of Youth Concerts staged by the RJF between 1940 and 1942.

The musical policy of the Hitler Youth was certainly bearing fruit with over thirty per cent of these concerts being performed entirely by musicians, soloists and conductors drawn from Hitler Youth musical schools across the Reich alone.

It is also very interesting to note that a conscious political decision was made that entry to all of these Youth Concerts should not be free, but an admission charge of 50 Pfennigs would be levied, in the belief that ‘German youngsters should learn that culture is something of value’!

By the time of the outbreak of the Second World War in September 1939, there were over 1200 HJ brass bands (or Musikzüge), orchestras, fanfare groups and marching bands (or Spielmannzüge), totalling some 36,000 members. In addition, a considerable number of Germany’s youth also gained their first ever experiences of music whilst watching and listening to these bands’ regular performances during the maelstrom years of the Third Reich 1933-1945…

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014

Radio in The Third Reich…

It was in the mid-1920s that a national broadcasting network, Grossdeutscher Rundfunk (Greater German Radio), was established in Germany and Funkstunde Berlin, was the first regional station to begin broadcasting on the 29th October 1923…and Berlin’s ‘Radio Hour’ became the first well-known programme of this new medium, with some 500 Berliners registered to receive it.The following year saw a number of regional radio stations (Reichssender) set up on medium wave under the Grossdeutscher Rundfunk umbrella in the cities of Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Königsberg & Münster.

Two years later Berlin found itself with a second radio station, Deutsche Welle, established in 1926 and this expansion in radio broadcasting captured the imagination of the German public and the number of registered & licensed radio listeners soon rose to an incredible 500,000. By the end of 1926 this figure had risen to well over one million Germans who were eagerly paying their 2 Reichsmarks (2 shillings or ten pence) a month to receive regular radio broadcasts in their own home!

Though the art of radio broadcasting & programme production was still fairly primitive, music was very much at the heart of this new fledgling form of entertainment, and there was a good variety & mix: from opera & operetta  to symphony orchestras & solo recitals which filled the regular evening broadcasting slots.

Then on January 30th 1933, Berlin radio carried a news-flash stating that Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Königsberg & Münster. leader, Adolf Hitler, had been promoted to the position of Reich Chancellor. With this brief message, radio broadcasting in Germany moved into a whole new era, to become a vital tool in the hands of the new propagandists! The following day, January 31st, Reichskanzler Hitler made his inaugural national radio address to the Third Reich, the first of some 50 broadcasts that he would make in his first year of office!

On March 15th 1933, the German Government assigned all broadcasting rights to the newly-formed Ministry for Education & Propaganda under Minister-in-Charge, Joseph Goebbels, who viewed radio as ‘the eighth wonder of the world’. He triumphantly declared: ‘We will create the first modern broadcasting system in the world has ever seen…and so take our National Socialist demands to the people…’ 

However the Nazi take-over did not, as one would have imagined, immediately change the tone of broadcasting from entertainment to blatant political propaganda; the reason for this can be attributed directly to Goebbels, who was not a stupid man and, along with Adolf Hitler, had quickly realised the power of radio & its influence over a population.

He was determined to ensure that radio retained its impact on the German people and not lose the appeal of National Socialism. He therefore issued an order at a conference of radio officials in March 1933 that radio output should….‘never become boring! Avoid dreariness and don’t put your convictions on the turntable, Do not think that you can serve the our government best by the sound of blaring marches evening after evening! Broadcasting should never suffer from the misused word!’

Nevertheless, Goebbels managed very successfully to balance entertainment with the political message, and in April 1933 he introduced a new programme called ‘Stunde der Nation’ (Hour of the Nation), which was relayed to all German regional radio stations each evening between 7 & 8 pm. Containing a professional mix of lectures, radio plays and politically inspired music and opera, it fulfilled Goebbel’s desire that radio should also:“saturate the people with the spiritual content of National Socialism!”

Two very astute observations from the Minister for Propaganda, but his approach seemed to work, for later that same year, at the tenth Broadcasting Exhibition in Berlin the People’s Receiver, the Volksempfänger 301 (derived from the date of the Nazis’ ascension to power on January 30th 1933), was launched, selling a staggering 100,000 sets on the first day at a cost of 76 marks (£5.8s.10d or £5.44p), almost half the cost of its nearest rival!

Radio broadcasting in Germany had certainly come of age, and by the following year an incredible 5 million German radio listeners were registered and though home ownership of the new radio receivers was growing rapidly, Goebbels was anxious that all Germans had access to radio broadcasts. He therefore ordered that radio loudspeakers be immediately installed in all factories and on street corners across the Reich to ensure that the political speeches of the nation’s leaders would reach the widest audience possible…

Under the slogan ‘a radio in every home’, he also decided that a low- cost radio set should now be made available to the German masses.

Technical & programme production development continued apace,and in 1936 a new and improved version of the VE301 was introduced at a lower cost of 65 marks (£5.5s.4d or £5.27p), followed in 1938 by the smaller Deutscher Kleinempfänger (German Compact People’s Receiver), which was introduced to great acclaim and (and no little excitement!), at an even lower and much more affordable price of just 35 marks (£2.17s.7d or £2.88p).

By 1938, light entertainment music, so-called ‘Unterhaltungsmusik’, was accounting for nearly two thirds of all music output, and in this pre-television era, German radio was winning the plaudits of its listeners for its variety of music from opera to musicals and for its willingness to experiment and play the latest in the new dance music, such as that of Barnabas von Geczy.

Broadcasting hours had risen from 14 hours a day in 1932 to 20 hours in the year before the outbreak of war, and with the expansion of the whole German broadcasting network, Berlin’s own ‘Radio Hour’ developed into a programme called ‘Germany’s Hour’ which was broadcast on the national network. In addition, each regional station in the German broadcasting network hired its own professional musicians, with the Berlin Funkstunde, for example, employing a 75-strong radio orchestra, a chamber orchestra of twenty-eight musicians and a twenty-five man choir.

By the outbreak of war in 1939, the number of domestic German listeners had risen to some 10 million, and with the extension of broadcasting hours, the demand for Unterhaltungs musik grew to such an extent that Goebbels actively ordered more of it be played on the radio. In September 1941, with a total audience of just over 50 million listeners now tuning in to some 15 million sets, he went a step further in establishing a Deutsches Tanz und Unterhaltungs Orchester.

Throughout the war years, Joseph Goebbels, as Reichspropagandaminister, continued to personally vet all musical content and weed out any records or performances that he thought inappropriate, but rather surprisingly, however, was how little Adolf Hitler actually interfered or meddled within the field of German civilian & military musical entertainment.

During his leadership of the Reich, he appeared to have issued only two direct music-related dictums, both on February 6th 1939: firstly that the infamous Horst Wessel Lied, (the alternative Nazi anthem), be played at a faster tempo… and that his beloved German National Anthem (Deutschlandlied) be played at crochet = 80..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014