The Great Escape of 1944…

Over the weekend I sat down to watch a superb documentary produced by Windfall Films and aired on Channel 5, devoted to the recent uncovering of the actual tunnel dug and used in the fabled 1944 ‘Great Escape’ from the German  Prisoner of War camp Stalag Luft III located in what is now western Poland…

Untouched for almost 70 years, this underground passage, nicknamed ‘Harry’ by Allied prisoners, was sealed by the enraged and embarrassed German authorities immediately after the audacious break-out from the camp and despite on-going interest in this subject, (not least as a result of the 1963 John Sturges-directed Hollywood movie of the same name starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson, James Coburn, Donald Pleasence et al) it has  remained undisturbed down the years because of its location behind the later Iron Curtain and of it being of no interest to the Soviets!

Now, post-Fall of the Berlin Wall, a team of archaeologists, lead by Briton Peter Doyle (his father was a POW in Stalag VIIIb) & American Larry Babits, (whose late father was a US bomber pilot with a reputation for always getting his air-crew safely home), have located and excavated this important war-time legacy from its sandy tomb in what is now a rather beautiful Polish silver-birch forest.

Over a three week period in August they located the actual entrance to the ‘Harry’ and in the course of this dig the team also stumbled across another tunnel, called ‘George’, whose exact position had not been charted, though this one was never used as the 2,000 remaining prisoners were forced to march to other camps as the Red Army approached Stalag III in January of 1945.

But it was during this recent excavation of ‘Harry’ that Peter & Larry, watched on by veterans of the original war-time tunnel construction, discovered many remarkable secrets that still abide within this 111-yard long wood-lined passageway out from the camp and under the former perimeter fences and tantalisingly close to what was, back then the surrounding woods. (The camp having been designed with all its POW huts on legs and away from the perimeter fences and a large swathe of woodland outside of those same perimeter fences felled and cleared so the Luftwaffe guards could, supposedly, always see what their prisoners were always up to!)

As all of us avid Great Escape movie-watchers know full well, the first tragedy of this daring  ‘Boy’s Own’ escape (conducted under British military leadership along the lines of the rules of cricket), was that the eventual opening of the completed tunnel came up dangerously short of the wood and so the escapees would have to come up with the risk of being spotted by the Luftwaffe guard’s watch-towers. This is why, despite help from a well-timed Allied air-raid just as the escape was on and the fact that one of the first out of the tunnel remained just inside the wood and dropped a rope back into the tunnel, giving two tugs to those within to indicate when the Luftwaffe guard had reached the far end of his patrol and it was safe to emerge, only 76 of the planned 200 prisoners got out and into the welcoming protective cover of the forest.

Having first found the concealed tunnel entrance in the ruins of what was originally POW Hut 104, the modern archaeologists excitingly then uncovered the ‘fake’ concrete panel that had disguised the tunnel opening inside the hut, then one of the metal hooks fashioned by the POWS to help with its removal. After this the team then dug down some 30 feet  into the sandy forest loam to uncover the tunnel itself and found that many of the originally harvested hut bed-boards, which had been used in mining fashion all those years previously to shore up the tunnel to stop it collapsing were all, incredibly still in position and expertly doing their protective job even today!

The original ventilation shaft, ingeniously crafted from used powdered milk containers known as ‘Klim Tins’, (milk backwards) was still in working order and as they moved further down through the excavation site, the team also found many parts of old metal buckets, hammers & crowbars, all cleverly fashioned into tools of many & varied designs in 1944 by the POWS from scavenged bits of metal and then used to hollow out the escape shaft & tunnel.

In all a total of some 600 Allied prisoners-of-war worked on three tunnels nicknamed Tom, Dick & Harry at the same time, (with the hope that if the German guards discovered one of them…as actually happened… then they could continue working on the other two), and these tiny shafts were just 2 feet square for most of their full length… not a happy undertaking for those suffering claustrophobia..!

Originally lit by candles made from fat skimmed off the top of their meagre bowls of Ox soup, later scavenging harvested enough wire for the former electricians within the prisoner escape teams to be able to secretly plumb into the German supply and have electric light along the lengths of all 3 tunnels… and so it was that on the night of March 24 & 25 1944, 76 Allied airmen successfully escaped through Harry, complete with their fake identity papers, suitcases and expertly mocked-up German military uniforms & civilian garb.

Barely a third of the originally-planned 200 prisoners managed to get through the tunnel and into the woods before the Allied air-raid was over, and the camp floodlights came back on and the 77th escapee was spotted by an alert German guard. At this point ‘the balloon truly went up’ and all of the remaining escapees in the tunnel were discovered and, along with those waiting in the huts for their chance, were rounded up inside the camp… but not before a great deal of the precious fake German documents forged in the previous year were quickly put to the flame inside the huts..!

3 Allied airmen successfully made it back home to fight again but in the second tragedy of this whole episode, some 50 POWS were rounded up and handed over to the Gestapo and such was Hitler’s apoplexy at this enormous breach of security that orders were given for all 50 prisoners to be executed by firing squad! But something I had not known until watching this excellent documentary was that the Luftwaffe Camp Commandant was so horrified by this cold-blooded killing of so many of the rounded-up POWS that in an amazing act of contrition, he allowed surviving prisoners from Stalag Luft III to go outside of the camp to build a memorial to their murdered airmen Comrades. Still there today it is interesting to note that the memorial missed off the final numeral: it reading just 1939 to 194 because, of course, those surviving prisoners didn’t know when the war would end.

But back to the actual tunnel excavation itself and from the film we learned that in all some 90 boards from bunk-beds, 62 tables, 34 chairs and 76 benches, as well as thousands of items including knives, spoons, forks, towels & blankets were all squirreled away by the Allied prisoners to help aid their ultimate escape plan, which successfully took place right under the noses of their Luftwaffe captors despite the German attempts to ‘keep a lid on things’.

Although the Hollywood movie suggested otherwise (and the Steve McQueen motorcycle sequence is a true motion-picture classic moment), no Americans actually escaped through the tunnel as all of the USAAF airmen involved for many months in the preparation of the tunnels allied to all of the required forgery and costume creations for such an operation were transferred, at the last minute, to another camp that had been built to specifically imprison just downed American bomber-crew and fighter pilots.

However, as is often the case with Hollywood producers rewriting World War Two history as they are oft wont do: (i.e. anything to do with D-Day always seems to forget British & Canadian troops storming the nearby beaches of Gold, Juno & Sword, that the spectacular capture of a Top Secret Enigma machine from a German U-Boot was undertaken by Royal Naval personnel not, as in last night’s film U571, by US seamen or, indeed in that awful CGI-dominated film Pearl Harbor, where the impression was given that just one US airman flying with the RAF had been personally responsible for winning the Battle of Britain single- handedly ..thus stretching the meaning of ‘The Few’ to a quite extraordinary length!)

However whilst American air-crew personnel were very much involved in the vital planning stages of the Great Escape, on the day of the break-out the POW’s were presominantly British, Canadians, Poles, ANZACS & South Africans and this modern day dig, (brilliantly interspersed for TV with some superb actor-recreations, something readers of my Blogs-various know I don’t usually rate), really was a wonderfully engrossing and modern day telling of this amazing war-time story.

Now all these years on from 1944 along with the several American veterans watching the excavation with rapt interest was Gordie King, a former RAF radio operator who, luckily for him in the end, was 140th in line for ‘Harry’ and so didn’t get away. As a result he lived to tell his story and to see the tunnel briefly opened up to the world & recorded on film, before being filled back in and hidden away from the world’s gaze once more.: ‘This brings back such bitter-sweet memories,’ he said, wiping away a tear, ‘I’m amazed by what they’ve found..!’

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

War on the Line..!

Your papers please..!”  barks the Military Policeman from the US 101st Airborne at the hapless passenger cringing in his 3rd class seat: the carriage goes quiet as the soldier then casts his eyes over the proffered Identity Card… “That’s OK!”.. then, in a cloud of Blanco dust and bristling military efficiency, he’s gone and the passengers breath a collective sigh of relief!

War on the Line the annual recreation of the momentous Summer of 1944 had once again returned to Hampshire’s famous Watercress steam railway line…

Battle re-enactment once something of a ramshackled hobby practiced by a few well-meaning but somewhat disorganised enthusiasts has, in recent years, very much become a recognised branch of the entertainment world, particularly in today’s TV documentary-making business, where original film footage is either non-existent or, if it actually still exists, then almost certainly prohibitively expensive. Therefore commissioning one of the many semi-professional specialist groups across the country to re-enact a particular scenario from an important point in history for the cameras is, if undertaken professionally, with the correct look, feel & sound effects, is more often than not a quite satisfying substitute..!

So completely taking over a renovated steam railway-line for the week-end to act out a specific war-time theme is no longer a total surprise, but simply further evidence of the growing range of scenarios that these amateur, highly knowledgeable enthusiasts like to re-create and so arriving at Alresford’s old station one lovely sun-drenched Hampshire Saturday morning in summer as I did, with a genuine a steam engine, idling contentedly at the platform in a cloud of happy steam, you could be forgiven for thinking that you’d wandered onto the set of a major war movie..!

American military policemen sitting in their jeeps cradling their carbines expectantly, ramrod-straight Grenadier Guardsmen in sentry-boxes with their Lee Enfield Mk IV rifles gripped tightly, station windows taped-up as protection against bomb blasts and barbed wire strewn across the station entrance: then suddenly the station forecourt comes alive as a small, bedraggled field-grey group of helmet-less ‘German soldiers’ are marched from the station door under escort towards the waiting jeeps..!

This was a scene that must have been re-enacted countless times for real across the whole of Southern England in those summer days immediately following the Allied invasion of Europe on D-Day June 6th 1944.

Back then and less than 50 miles away, paratroopers from the U.S.101st & 82nd Airborne Divisions had jumped into Normandy as British & Canadian Infantrymen were fighting their way off the UK-designated invasion beaches of Gold, Juno & Sword and the Americans similarly from their allocated beacheheads of Utah & Omaha… and in the ensuing and very bloody melee that followed, many thousands of German soldiers were swiftly captured by the rapidly advancing Allied forces.

Rounded up and brought back across the Channel in the returning landing craft, these stunned & defeated soldiers of Hitler’s army would arrive at Southampton Docks under the stern gaze of British & US military policemen, many of whom had just taken part in the first wave of assaults on the Normandy coastline but who were now being sent back on ‘R&R’ only to find themselves pressed back into service as P.o.W. escorts. Now from the quay-side at Southampton the mixed bags of German prisoners would be marched onto waiting trains and escorted to the stockades on the Kempton Race course, their war well and truly over!

Today, at several stations all along Hampshire’s famous Watercress Line such scenarios from that Summer of ’44 are now faithfully acted ever year: ‘downed’ Luftwaffe fighter & bomber pilots and captured SS infantrymen from the SS-Panzergrenadier Regiment ‘Theodor Eicke’ are paraded on the platforms, under the watchful gaze of amazingly authentic-looking regular Grenadier Guardsmen and older Home Guard soldiers.

At Medstead & Four Marks station, local re-enactor Bryan Webb had spent over 6 months on the war-time transformation of this country railway station and now found himself dressed as a private in the Home Guard unit of the 21st Battalion, (4th Southern Railway), Hampshire, who would have actually been responsible for guarding the railway lines across Southern England at that stage of the Second World War.

Bryan explained how his friends like to recreate the less glamorous side of the British Home Front: “My Dad served in the Auxiliary Fire Service in London during the Blitz, so I thought I’d like to show that side of the war”. His friend, Italian P.o.W. ‘Benito’, better known as Mick Burkenshaw from Britain’s Blacked Out Museum, agrees: “All re-enactors want to portray the glamour, but our group prefers showing what our parents went through on the Home Front”.

His parents should be justly proud of their work, for there on the platform everybody was accurately represented: young Land Army girls with their long auburn hair sitting on a bale of hay eating their sandwiches, an ARP warden busy dealing with unexploded incendiaries whilst the station master in waistcoat & steel helmet stands patiently awaiting the next train..

Everywhere the standard of re-creation is quite extraordinary and the efforts of these young actors is well-received by the older audience, but was this emotional week-end just a trip down memory lane? Mid-Hants Watercress Line company secretary Mrs Jo Boait explained: “ As a company we are here to keep the image of the old steam railway alive for everybody, but an important event like ‘War on the Line’ not only helps to capture the atmosphere but also shows a younger generation just what those days were like”.

Then, as if right on cue, another sullen group of captured German infantrymen are escorted from this beautiful old Victorian-style railway station by stern-faced US Military Policemen, past a small group of small wide-eyed children, who can only stand & stare, open-mouthed… no doubt very much the same reaction that would have been exhibited by their young counterparts nearly 70 years ago, I’ll wager..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013