Radio in The Third Reich…

It was in the mid-1920s that a national broadcasting network, Grossdeutscher Rundfunk (Greater German Radio), was established in Germany and Funkstunde Berlin, was the first regional station to begin broadcasting on the 29th October 1923…and Berlin’s ‘Radio Hour’ became the first well-known programme of this new medium, with some 500 Berliners registered to receive it.The following year saw a number of regional radio stations (Reichssender) set up on medium wave under the Grossdeutscher Rundfunk umbrella in the cities of Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Königsberg & Münster.

Two years later Berlin found itself with a second radio station, Deutsche Welle, established in 1926 and this expansion in radio broadcasting captured the imagination of the German public and the number of registered & licensed radio listeners soon rose to an incredible 500,000. By the end of 1926 this figure had risen to well over one million Germans who were eagerly paying their 2 Reichsmarks (2 shillings or ten pence) a month to receive regular radio broadcasts in their own home!

Though the art of radio broadcasting & programme production was still fairly primitive, music was very much at the heart of this new fledgling form of entertainment, and there was a good variety & mix: from opera & operetta  to symphony orchestras & solo recitals which filled the regular evening broadcasting slots.

Then on January 30th 1933, Berlin radio carried a news-flash stating that Leipzig, Munich, Frankfurt, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Königsberg & Münster. leader, Adolf Hitler, had been promoted to the position of Reich Chancellor. With this brief message, radio broadcasting in Germany moved into a whole new era, to become a vital tool in the hands of the new propagandists! The following day, January 31st, Reichskanzler Hitler made his inaugural national radio address to the Third Reich, the first of some 50 broadcasts that he would make in his first year of office!

On March 15th 1933, the German Government assigned all broadcasting rights to the newly-formed Ministry for Education & Propaganda under Minister-in-Charge, Joseph Goebbels, who viewed radio as ‘the eighth wonder of the world’. He triumphantly declared: ‘We will create the first modern broadcasting system in the world has ever seen…and so take our National Socialist demands to the people…’ 

However the Nazi take-over did not, as one would have imagined, immediately change the tone of broadcasting from entertainment to blatant political propaganda; the reason for this can be attributed directly to Goebbels, who was not a stupid man and, along with Adolf Hitler, had quickly realised the power of radio & its influence over a population.

He was determined to ensure that radio retained its impact on the German people and not lose the appeal of National Socialism. He therefore issued an order at a conference of radio officials in March 1933 that radio output should….‘never become boring! Avoid dreariness and don’t put your convictions on the turntable, Do not think that you can serve the our government best by the sound of blaring marches evening after evening! Broadcasting should never suffer from the misused word!’

Nevertheless, Goebbels managed very successfully to balance entertainment with the political message, and in April 1933 he introduced a new programme called ‘Stunde der Nation’ (Hour of the Nation), which was relayed to all German regional radio stations each evening between 7 & 8 pm. Containing a professional mix of lectures, radio plays and politically inspired music and opera, it fulfilled Goebbel’s desire that radio should also:“saturate the people with the spiritual content of National Socialism!”

Two very astute observations from the Minister for Propaganda, but his approach seemed to work, for later that same year, at the tenth Broadcasting Exhibition in Berlin the People’s Receiver, the Volksempfänger 301 (derived from the date of the Nazis’ ascension to power on January 30th 1933), was launched, selling a staggering 100,000 sets on the first day at a cost of 76 marks (£5.8s.10d or £5.44p), almost half the cost of its nearest rival!

Radio broadcasting in Germany had certainly come of age, and by the following year an incredible 5 million German radio listeners were registered and though home ownership of the new radio receivers was growing rapidly, Goebbels was anxious that all Germans had access to radio broadcasts. He therefore ordered that radio loudspeakers be immediately installed in all factories and on street corners across the Reich to ensure that the political speeches of the nation’s leaders would reach the widest audience possible…

Under the slogan ‘a radio in every home’, he also decided that a low- cost radio set should now be made available to the German masses.

Technical & programme production development continued apace,and in 1936 a new and improved version of the VE301 was introduced at a lower cost of 65 marks (£5.5s.4d or £5.27p), followed in 1938 by the smaller Deutscher Kleinempfänger (German Compact People’s Receiver), which was introduced to great acclaim and (and no little excitement!), at an even lower and much more affordable price of just 35 marks (£2.17s.7d or £2.88p).

By 1938, light entertainment music, so-called ‘Unterhaltungsmusik’, was accounting for nearly two thirds of all music output, and in this pre-television era, German radio was winning the plaudits of its listeners for its variety of music from opera to musicals and for its willingness to experiment and play the latest in the new dance music, such as that of Barnabas von Geczy.

Broadcasting hours had risen from 14 hours a day in 1932 to 20 hours in the year before the outbreak of war, and with the expansion of the whole German broadcasting network, Berlin’s own ‘Radio Hour’ developed into a programme called ‘Germany’s Hour’ which was broadcast on the national network. In addition, each regional station in the German broadcasting network hired its own professional musicians, with the Berlin Funkstunde, for example, employing a 75-strong radio orchestra, a chamber orchestra of twenty-eight musicians and a twenty-five man choir.

By the outbreak of war in 1939, the number of domestic German listeners had risen to some 10 million, and with the extension of broadcasting hours, the demand for Unterhaltungs musik grew to such an extent that Goebbels actively ordered more of it be played on the radio. In September 1941, with a total audience of just over 50 million listeners now tuning in to some 15 million sets, he went a step further in establishing a Deutsches Tanz und Unterhaltungs Orchester.

Throughout the war years, Joseph Goebbels, as Reichspropagandaminister, continued to personally vet all musical content and weed out any records or performances that he thought inappropriate, but rather surprisingly, however, was how little Adolf Hitler actually interfered or meddled within the field of German civilian & military musical entertainment.

During his leadership of the Reich, he appeared to have issued only two direct music-related dictums, both on February 6th 1939: firstly that the infamous Horst Wessel Lied, (the alternative Nazi anthem), be played at a faster tempo… and that his beloved German National Anthem (Deutschlandlied) be played at crochet = 80..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014

 

Soldier Songs in the Third Reich…

As I soon came to discover when producing Tomahawk’s comprehensive & very varied catalogue of original WW-II Two German military & civilian music,  including the Military Music of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-45, nothing in life is ever really new, for many of the so-called classic Nazi party songs & tunes adopted by the Sturmabteilung, Hitler Youth, Luftwaffe, Kriegsmarine, Waffen-SS, Heer, Afrika Korps and so on, were in many cases, simply old Imperial German marching songs or classic German folk songs adopted and adapted with much military pride or fanatical fervour by the Third Reich.

Many traditional soldier songs, from Als die Goldene Abendsonne & Ein Heller und ein Batzen, to pre-WW-1 One songs like Lippe Detmold, & Strassburg O’ Strassburg date as far as the 1700s rule of Friedrich the Great. In fact Wenn alle untreu werden, the official anthem of the SS, dates right back to 1568.

However, under the aegis of the Third Reich, many of these traditional Prusso-German military songs & tunes were now adopted by individual military units and regiments as their own official corps songs; as such, they were sometimes known either by their original historical name or, more commonly, as the song of the particular unit that had adopted it.

For example, ‘Ritter der Nordsee’ was adopted by the Kriegsmarine and became known officially as the Lied der E-Boots (or Song of the E-Boats), whilst the traditional ‘Argonnerwald’ became the Song of the Pionierkorps. Elsewhere, the Luftwaffe’s flak crews adopted ‘Leb Wohl, Irene’ as their own, ‘Es War ein Edelweiss’ became known as the Lied der Gebirgsjäger (Mountain Troops), and ‘Rot Scheint die Sonne’ became the favourite and stunningly evocative tune of Hermann Goering’s paratroopers and henceforth known as the Lied der Fallschirmjäger.

The creation of new and stirring songs to accompany the battle campaigns were also encouraged by the Reich; as such the great German marching song composers of the time, Prof. Herms Niel, Norbert Schultze and Hermann Löns were to flourish through the writing of such stirring songs as Wir fahren gegen Engelland (for the planned assault of mainland Britain), Das Frankreichlied (to accompany the German assault on France), and Vorwärts nach Osten (to eulogise Hitler’s eastern campaign against Stalin’s Russia).

In some cases, new politically inspired words were simply set to old & well-known German melodies, such as the new Hitler Youth march, ‘Durch deutsches Land marschieren wir’, penned by Herbert Hammer, which was dropped onto the tune of the old World War One favourite, ‘Argonnerlied’! 

However, despite Germany’s awesome strength as a military nation and the undoubted prowess of its individual fighting men, the actual subject matter and contents of quite a large number of the newer marching & folk songs penned, with the full encouragement of the Third Reich leadership, were surprisingly gentle and non-militaristic.

Many more tunes now spoke longingly of dearly loved and much missed mothers & girl friends (the names of Gerda, Ursula, Rosemarie, Monika & Annemarie being extremely popular with songwriters and soldiers alike!), and of the varied  regions of the soldiers’ beautiful German homeland, with many fond references to the nation’s abundance of mountains & heathlands, flowers & trees, rivers & oceans, towns and hamlets!

The re-vitalised German film industry, now flourishing under the patronage of Nazi Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, was to also introduce a number of well-known Third Reich military songs, including ‘Soldaten sind immer Soldaten’ from the film ‘Der Westwall’ and the very popular naval tune, ‘Wenn das Schifferklavier an Bord ertönt’, which was written especially for the film ‘Das Wunschkonzert’ (the movie story of the German Armed Forces radio request show Wunschkonzert fuer die Wehrmacht), before being enthusiastically taken up by the German military and civilian audiences alike.

Strangely, many of the new marching songs, although written by many differing lyricists, appeared to share many common words, sentiments and even choruses, so making it not uncommon to come across songs bearing exactly the same main title, with often only the sub-titles distinguishing them upon first glance..!

In addition, this sudden re-emergence of German songwriters & composers in the 1930s and early 40s, from both the ranks of the professional civilian musician and the trained soldier from the armed forces, also gave rise to more than one version of a song actually staking its claim to be the official Korpslieder for a particular unit, which caused confusion!

This resulted in differing lyrics & arrangements appearing across a range of official military song-books under the same title, as in the case of both the U-Boot Lied and the Lied der Afrika Korps, where at least 2 different songs claim to be the ‘official’ D.A.K. anthem, whilst there were 8 separate songs devoted to the U-Boot arm in the Kriegsmarine song-book Blaujacken-Lieder’..! 

         Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

 

The Third Reich’s Record Industry…

As I explain in greater depth in my book, The Military Music & Bandsmen of Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-1945, German military music and its production really came of age in the mid 1920s, with the introduction of electric recording and the advent of the microphone; as a result, subsequent record production took off in 1930 and continued into the years of the Third Reich from 1933 to 1941.

However, with the ready availability of military marching music in public life, be it an open-air concert in the town square or a military parade through the town headed by the garrison’s Musikkorps, the actual demand for 78rpm schellack records was initially limited. This combined with the fact that the ‘new’ records were still considered as a bit of a luxury, meant that the majority of military recordings were initially transferred onto schellack for radio play, although all this would soon change.

The actual quality of these recordings took a gigantic leap in 1938 when German industrial giant AEG first developed a plastic tape with a ferrous coating which was then followed in 1941 by a pre-magnetised, high-frequency tape.

When used in conjunction with the newly developed Magnetophone recorder, this allowed for both the recording and play-back of music and, (particularly fortuitous for the Third Reich’s propagandists), the speeches of Adolf Hitler & Joseph Goebbels which were to become virtually indistinguishable from their live concerts!

With these major technological steps forward it was now possible to record up to twenty minutes duration and, for the first time, also allowed the editing of pieces from different sources, another key feature in the propaganda war that was now being waged on the Nazi airwaves.

Whilst the number of record companies in Germany increased almost overnight, the financial crash of 1929 and subsequent depression saw a large number of these fledgling companies sink without trace. Those that survived did so because they had international connections; these included two companies owned by British interests, Electrola, the German off-shoot of the Gramophone Company, and Carl Lindstrom Gesellschaft, which belonged to Columbia and released its recordings on the Odeon label. Both companies had very extensive catalogues of music recorded in Berlin.

Deutsche Grammophon & Telefunken were the two most important wholly German-owned companies, (with recordings of military music primarily aimed at the domestic market), and their reaction to the incoming National Socialist regime in 1933 was cautious, to say the least! However from a purely business point of view they simply could not ignore the public’s clamour & demand for commercial recordings of the new Nazi-inspired political and military music.

So they went about fulfilling this insatiable demand and from May 1933 onwards, Electrola alone released seven records a month devoted purely to patriotic songs and marching music, with the other companies eagerly following suit. By war’s outbreak in September 1939, the annual German gramophone catalogue of music releases was offering over 580 different marches, including eight alternative versions of Die Fahne Hoch!(Horst Wessel Song) and a tantalising six different versions of the ‘The Badenweiler Marsch’.

Nazi regulation of the German recording industry was somewhat laxer than its hold over the radio industry, which is probably why Carl Lindstrom was able to continue recording and distributing American jazz music on its Odeon swing series throughout all the countries occupied by the forces of the Wehrmacht.

However, Goebbels soon included the German record industry in his implementation of the anti-Jewish policies and thus ordered all recording companies to purge their catalogues of all Jewish-penned & performed works, and an order issued on December 18th 1937 by the Reichsmusikkammer banned all records containing both Jewish & Negro musicians. As a direct result, other recordings deemed ‘acceptable’ to the Nazi regime were now very much elevated to an almost ‘religous level’ such as the aforementioned and very stirring tune that Adolf Hitler had adopted as his very own and highly distinctive entry march: Der Badenweiler….

The major labels initially resisted, but by 1939 they had all but given in, and the so the likes of Electrola and Carl Lindstrom (now both taken over by the Nazis), together with Deutsche Grammophon and Telefunken, had all completely cleared out their musical inventories of Jewish and Negro- influenced work.

However, keen jazz, swing & blues aficionados amongst members of Luftwaffe aircrew, flying on bombing raids against the British Isles during the Battle of Britain in 1940 and onwards, were still able to indulge their passion for this ‘sinful’ music by simply re-tuning their aircraft’s on-board short-wave radio sets to pick up BBC broadcasts emanating from London, for the duration of their mission!

By August 1941 Jospeh Goebbels had banned all music arranged by British, Poles, Russians & French citizens, the only works that survived his purge were by Chopin & Bizet and domestic orchestras were forced to turn their attentions to many obscure German composers.

However despite Goebbels’ diktats’ the German recording industry managed to function unfettered by Nazi interference, though as the Second World War progressed, fewer 78 rpm schellack records were produced between 1941 & 1942 and from 1943 onwards production virtually ceased altogether as raw materials began to reach critical levels across the Reich.

This, together with the call-up into the Third Reich’s armed forces of  workers from the hitherto ‘Reserved Occupations’ meant that, by the end of 1944, just 35,000 men & women remained in Nazi Germany’s recording industry!

But war’s end in May 1945, it had died altogether in the ashes of a defeated Germany, though several famous names, like Polydor, have risen again ‘phoenix-like’ to successfully rebuild and recover their previous international position since the end of World War Two…

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

 

The Music of Third Reich Favourite Mimi Thoma…

When it comes to evocative female singers from those dark days of World War Two that were tasked with keeping up the spirits of war-weary nations, there will always be those that are instantly remembered and recalled: for the Allies it will always be Vera Lynn & Ann Shelton, for the Americans, The Andrews Sisters and for the Germans it will forever be Lale Andersen and Zarah Leander… but what about those other ‘literally un-sung heroines’ that were deemed their equals at the time, but since 1945 have almost fallen into total obscurity?

For Germany one such singer, popular throughout the years of the Third Reich, but barely a musical footnote after, is Mimi Thoma: born in Munich in 1909 the young Mimi originally set out on a medical career, successfully working in the nursing profession in pre-war Germany and at the time she had set out for herself a long-term game-plan to specialise in Paediatrics, (or the care of children). However fate had different plans in store for her and, as a very talented amateur singer in her spare time and blessed of a superb & quite distinctive voice, she was very soon noticed and then signed-up by music agents in the 1930s when as she was performing part-time in some of the many small nightclubs that were dotted around her home city.

With a wonderfully wistful & quite moody delivery that was so en vogue in the pre-war German cabaret scene in both Munich and the capital, Berlin, Mimi very soon built up a massive and loyal following right across Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich so much, in fact, that it put her up on a then par with, and ranked equally alongside, the likes of the similar voiced, but the more famous aforementioned cabaret singers, Lale Andersen & Zarah Leander.

Proclaimed on each & every concert-hall bill-board across Germany as: ‘A voice that everyone knows’ Mimi also became a great favourite with Joseph Goebbels and the Reich’s Nazi propagandists and as such throughout her burgeoning career she was variously signed to the German Grammophon, Telefunken & Polydor recording labels. Additionally, as with Zarah Leander, she also found herself acting in several important Berlin-produced movie-musicals that were shot at the famous Ufa-Babelsburg studios later on in the Second World War.

Surviving war’s eventual end in May 1945 Mimi, like her compatriot Lale Andersen, was also asked to perform for an Allied Red Cross concert in late 1945, before then embarking, again like Lale, on several years of touring across post-war Germany. However, very sadly, she was never able to recapture her terrific war-time success or indeed build upon her amazing pre-1945 popularity in Germany and tragically died in Cologne in 1968 at the tender age of just 59; even worse, she died alone and totally forgotten by her once adoring country..!

And that is how matters would have remained, had it not been for American movie mogul & director, Steven Spielberg, who would come to use Mimi’s very evocative children’s song, ‘Mamatschi’ on the sound-track of his Hollywood blockbuster movie Schindler’s List

It is a real tragedy that Mimi would have died believing her singing career had passed into obscurity and that she had been completely forgotten and thus unaware that, through Mr Spielberg years later, a welcome spotlight would once again be shone on her former war-time singing career as a Third Reich favourite and indeed that a new younger generation would come to hear her distinctive voice, whilst her past fans would be happily reminded just why they originally adored her voice the first time around…

Not surprisingly, we were delighted here at Tomahawk Films when our further searches in Germany uncovered, by chance, a small but perfectly preserved haul of pre-Second War schellack 78rpm records containing some of Mimi’s best known former songs…

Included was her own theme tune, Mamatschi, so allowing us to shine a small light on this once famous, but long-forgotten female voice of the Third Reich recording & radio industries through the release of our CD: Mamatschi..! The Songs of The Third Reich’s Favourite Cabaret Singer Mimi Thoma 1935-1941 …

 Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

Nazi Propaganda Swing from Charlie & His Orchestra..!

Just one of the many enjoyable aspects of producing Tomahawk Film’s digital re-mastered archival music CDs is that, thanks to our searches in Germany, aided by our friends & colleagues on the continent, is that we never know from one day, or one month, to the next just what wonderful material will emerge from hiding..and what new titles we can produce as a result..!

When Tomahawk first became a professional  restorer of period audio archival material some 25 years ago, it was the military side of the Third Reich that we concentrated on, but after many years in the Dubmaster studio with archival engineer Simon ‘Woody’ Wood, I found that I was really becoming captivated by the wonderful civilian music that also emanated from this period… and once we had produced our Wunschkonzert fuer die Wehrmacht series, we realised our audiences were too..!

From the Music of Lale Andersen to Wilhelm Strienz, from Dance Music of the Third Reichto the Songs of Mimi Thoma, we were certainly widening our net… however it was perhaps the Nazi Propaganda Radio Swing, Blues & Jazz classics from the famous Lutz Templin Orchestra, (better known as ’Charlie and His Orchestra’) that really caught our further historical attention & interest and I am very proud of the CD that came out of another fantastic editing & re-mastering session with Woody:

Perhaps one of the lesser know theatres of World War Two was the ‘Battle of the Airwaves’ and the leading exponents were the radio producers of the Reich’s Propaganda Ministry in Berlin, whose short-wave radio broadcasts from Reichsender Berlin took many forms; and whilst Lord Haw-Haw remains the most infamous voice heard on these Nazi air-waves, the Lutz Templin Orchestra aka ‘Charlie and his Orchestra’ was, broadcasting to the outside world, perhaps one of the most widely listened to!

Working directly to Propaganda Minister Joseph Goebbels, a team of top composers & lyricists set about parodying well-known American Jazz, Blues & Swing classics of the day and specifically penned, first anti-British & anti-Semitic lyrics, thence anti-American & Soviet broadsides, which Propaganda Ministry linguists would then translate into English for broadcast.

Whilst ‘Charlie’ in the title was believed to be famous German crooner Karl Schwedler, (who was allowed to travel throughout occupied France, Holland & neutral Sweden, to collect examples of the latest Anglo-American music, banned in Nazi Germany), it was band co-leader Lutz Templin who was the driving force behind the parodies’ musical  arrangements.

Though the band line-up changed regularly between 1940 & 1945 as many of its professional German musicians, (drafted into the Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS Musikkorps), were replaced by Belgian & Dutch musicians from the Occupied countries, Templin’s continued influence could be felt as the band performed in Berlin; then as the Allied bombing of Germany intensified it relocated to perform & continue broadcasting on short-wave radio, (Kurzwellensender), in Stuttgart from the Summer of 1943.

As the war raged on, so the skits parodied different events & countries involved in the war effort, but the songs never lost their distinctive feel of 1940’s war-time radio and this superb 16-track collection of clever English lyrics, ranging from the funny to the vitriolic, offers some stunning Nazi Propaganda Swing classics including: I Double-Dare You, Miss BBCBye ‘Bye Empire and Black-out Blues..

In addition there is, at Goebbels’ insistence, two poignant Lale Andersen English lyrics vocals on Under an Umbrella & Lili Marleen, which were specifically aimed at capitalizing on the home-sickness many Allied servicemen posted overseas would already be feeling…!

I hope you’ll derive as much fun from listening to this very rare and hugely engaging collection of Nazi Propaganda music as I did in re-mastering & producing it… it’s certainly full of wonderfully entertaining tracks that should hopefully, (as they say in theatrical circles), ‘delight & amaze you…’

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013