Choir Training in the Wehrmacht…

Throughout the history of German military music, the twin performances of full regimental band & soldiers’ song, by a single voice or full field-choir have run parallel with both vital to troop entertainment in the barracks or in the field. Compared to other field-entertainment such as cinema & theatre or concert performances, a choir raised from combat troops was seen as being on-hand & ready to sing in all locations and in all conditions when a band was not available.

The importance of singing in the Armed Forces of the Third Reich was underlined by Generalfeldmarschall von Keitel who said in the foreword to the Handbuch für die Singleiterder Wehrmacht (Army Handbook for Those in Charge of Soldiers’ Singing): “Throughout the ages, songs have been the comrades of German soldiers in good times and bad; for soldiers on the march, at rest or at play, singing is always the living expression of soldierly comradeship. Whoever is in charge of soldiers singing has himself to be in possession of a great wealth of knowledge and has to have a happy way of passing this knowledge on…He also has to understand the deeper purpose of soldiers’ song and music. In times of struggle, music is a source of joy, of up-lifting, and inner strength for the people. Those in charge of singing have to unlock this source of strength for their men…..”

Writing in the same manual, Hauptmann Wilhelm Matthes summed up the value of song to the German Army in 1940: “Whatever moves a soldier’s innermost feelings most strongly, be it battle, victory, death, comradeship, loyalty, love of weaponry, love of homeland, love of wife and family, all these emotions find their immediate expression in the wealth of beautiful soldiers’ songs which have been handed down through many generations, and also in the great number of new songs which give expression to the experiences of the current war….”

Set against this widely held belief, the Wehrmacht High Command decreed it desirable that, given the appropriate good will and organisation, every division or regiment in the German armed forces should be in a position to set up its own small choir, despite the demands of military duties or the restrictions put upon it by being a front-line unit.

Understanding that such choirs could only function with the full support of its commanding officer and the skill of the conductor, it was also stated in the Wehrmacht Handbook that: choir singing should be seen and rewarded as a part of service to the troop, and not just as a simple leisure activity. This should be achieved by recruiting eight good singers who have a rudimentary knowledge of how to read music. All too often such ventures fail because an advert is placed simply saying “Volunteer Singers Wanted” and then the applicants are accepted with no further selection.

These eight singers will then motivate others by performing comparatively simple songs to a high standard, so attracting others to come forward, and once the choir has reached 24 to 28 members, it can then cope with more tasks and the change of personnel that will undoubtedly occur within a combat unit….”

Oberkommando der Wehrmacht’s advice on selecting a choirmaster was: “to search for a conductor with previous experience of amateur choirs, someone who knows how to handle a variety of voices and who can combine educational flair with energy and staying power. Most of all, that soldier should know how to capture and hold his singers’ attention and how to inspire them, be he a good amateur or a professional…”

On programme selection, the training manual also suggested that it was: “far better to undertake a simple song rather than dishearten a choir by attempting something far too complicated. Conductors of field choirs have a unique opportunity to influence the tastes of a wide selection of the population by choosing music of an artistic value as found in folk songs and truly popular music…

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014

Wehrmacht Military Musical Training…

“The essence of being a soldier, the inner and outer discipline, the readiness for action finds its most compelling expression in the march, which even today, we simply refer to as the ‘military march’. As a soldier is expected to think, speak, look and act, even when not on duty, he is similarly expected to sound like a soldier when making music”…so quoted the Handbuch für die Singleiter der Wehrmacht when first published in 1940…

Viewed with the same seriousness as combat or specialist personnel, career military bandsmen of the Reich were recruited from the following four backgrounds: firstly there were the professional musicians in civilian life or former musicians with the Imperial German Army or Reichswehr who answered adverts in the Deutsche Militärmusikerzeitung (German Journal for Military Musicians) for specific musical posts within the newly formed Wehrmacht and SS Musikkorps during the pre-war period of 1933 to 1939, or who applied to join a military band having been called-up for general military service after the outbreak of war in 1939.

Second category would be young, fully trained Hitlerjugend musicians or gifted amateurs spotted by a SS or Wehrmacht Musikmeister and subsequently invited to join the unit or divisional band.. whilst a third grouping were drawn from young soldiers and part-time ‘hobby’ musicians who, having undertaken their pre-war six months training with the Reichsarbeitsdienst, then joined the Wehrmacht and were spotted by their regimental bands as potential recruits and recommended for formal military music training.

The final group would be comprised of professional military bandmasters and musicians recruited upon completion of their musical training in the Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS respective military music academies (Heeresmusikschule Bueckburg & SS Musikschule Braunschweig) or the elite Berlin Music Academy.

In the previously quoted Third Reich’s official German Army Musician’s handbook ‘Handbuch für die Singleiter der Wehrmacht’, Major Ernst-Lothar von Knorr on the staff of the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht (German High Command) confirmed in his writing:

“Only professional musicians or young men with substantial musical training can become Wehrmacht musicians; they are either recruited as volunteers or by the Wehrbezirkskommando (regional army administration), once they have reached call-up age. Posts are advertised daily in newspapers & specialised publications and musicians are tested in their musical ability by the Musikmeister. The new military musicians must have mastered their main instrument to such a degree of competence that they can immediately take up their place in the band, which they will do upon completion of their basic training.

If a post becomes vacant, they will be assigned to it after signing a 12-year contract and if showing the required aptitude, will be admitted to the training programme for musician NCOs. This admission depends on a favourable report by the Musikmeister. Apart from a wide-ranging knowledge of music history, successful candidates are required to play not only their main instrument but a secondary one as well.

If they show exceptional ability and leadership qualities, two further career paths are open to them: without reference to their previous length of service they can be made Korpsführer; in this position they will stand in for the Musikmeister and bear the rank of a senior NCO,which in the Wehrmacht is either a Musikoberfeldwebel or a Musikoberwachtmeister.

The second option is the training to become a Musikmeister: candidates are nominated by their own Musikmeister who will oversee their preparation for admission to the Staatliche Hochschule für Musik (State Musical Academy), in Berlin where they will enjoy reduced military duties to assist with their studies. The academic training at the university takes 3 years and music students follow a set curriculum which comprises both practical & theoretical subjects.

Apart from purely musical duties, students are also trained for the military leadership of a Musikkorps (regimental band), and a Spielmannszug (fife & drum corps), and the course culminates in practical musical and an equivalent military examination. Before they embark on this course of study, successful candidates have to sign up for an additional 6-year contract over and above the general 12-year one, and a Musikmeister can expect to progress to the rank of Obermusikmeister and Stabsmusikmeister.

The musical demands of young military musicians are high and the daily rehearsals are serious work, therefore their selection and training is a matter of great seriousness….”

And this is certainly borne out by the Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS musicianship evident on the original 1933-45 schellack 78rpm recordings, digitally re-mastered to CD and on offer in The Tomahawk Films WW-II German Archive…

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014

Third Reich Military Concerts…

During the years of the Third Reich 1933-1945, public concerts & radio performances given by the military orchestras and bands of the elite Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS Musikkorps, particularly by Adolf Hitler’s Bodyguard Division band, the Leibstandarte-SS, were very much a feature of civilian life in both pre-war & war-time Germany and as such were deemed a vitally important part of the propaganda morale-boosting of the German Home Front…

The co-ordination of these  important social and inherently propaganda events came under the control of the ‘Kraft durch Freude’ (Strength through Joy) organisation, a department of the Deutsche Arbeitsfront that oversaw and promoted public entertainment and holidays for the people throughout the Third Reich.

So it was that this KdF organisation took responsibility for promoting all of the pre-war military concert tours that regularly took place right across Greater Germany, plus all of the major musical events staged by the elite bands of theSS-Leibstandarte ‘Adolf Hitler’ and the Wehrmacht’s leading Musikkorps, such as the ‘Grossdeutschland’ Musikkorps within Berlin’s Wachbataillonen...

When rostered to perform concerts in public as part of their normal everyday military service, Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS soldier-musicians were governed by either the Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or the SS Reichsführung Hauptamt, and were paid in exactly the same manner as ordinary enlisted personnel, which was once every ten days at the rate of 25 Pfennig per day.

However, when they were booked to perform at a specifically-staged high profile concert or national event… or were out ‘on the road’ on tour across Germany for the Kraft durch Freude organisation, a separate deal would be struck directly with the Musikkorps in question, which proved to be a very valuable source of additional private income for all of the musicians involved…

Permission would be sought of the band’s unit commander by the KdF organisation to perform, and a fee of some 5% of the concert or event takings would be paid directly into the unit’s military account; thereafter, pay for the performers was carefully divided up, with the conductor/band-leader earning three shares and each individual musician, regardless of his rank, earning one share apiece…

It was not always possible for the full band line-ups to appear, however strict band rotas were operated to try to make sure that all the band’s musicians received the opportunity to play at these outside concerts and earn a little extra, and to ensure that musicians were specifically selected for certain concerts according to their required musical skills.Indeed the Musikkorps of the SS-Leibstandarte ‘Adolf Hitler’ had, within its line-up of musicians, a superb dance-band (right) that was always in demand to perform at private parties for the well-to-do in and around the German capital, Berlin…

By way of further prospects for additional earnings over and above their normal military pay, all of the top Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS military orchestras in fact were also readily available (and much encouraged by their separate High Commands) to perform at private functions, weddings, family celebrations and myriad gatherings laid on by senior ministers, dignitaries, government officials and the military Top Brass.. an opportunity these highly-trained, professional musicians never missed when offered… their day-to-day military duties permitting. of course!

All Wehrmacht & Waffen-SS Musikkorps performances that were tightly organised and overseen by the Kraft durch Freude, also included those live performances broadcast on Greater German radio, such as the most important Sunday night Wunschkonzert für die Wehrmacht, (Request Concert for the Armed Forces, broadcast from Reichssender Berlin).

In addition the KdF also took on overall responsibility for organising the regular professional studio-recording sessions that many of the leading Musikkorps, (such as the Musikkorps LAH & ‘Grossdeutschland’) had with the leading German music labels, including Telefunken, Electrola, HMV & Gloria, where these varied musical activities would also result in a similar division of additional pay amongst the participating musicians, plus vital contributions to the individual band’s military fund…

           Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2014