The Great Escape of 1944…

Over the weekend I sat down to watch a superb documentary produced by Windfall Films and aired on Channel 5, devoted to the recent uncovering of the actual tunnel dug and used in the fabled 1944 ‘Great Escape’ from the German  Prisoner of War camp Stalag Luft III located in what is now western Poland…

Untouched for almost 70 years, this underground passage, nicknamed ‘Harry’ by Allied prisoners, was sealed by the enraged and embarrassed German authorities immediately after the audacious break-out from the camp and despite on-going interest in this subject, (not least as a result of the 1963 John Sturges-directed Hollywood movie of the same name starring Steve McQueen, James Garner, Richard Attenborough, Charles Bronson, James Coburn, Donald Pleasence et al) it has  remained undisturbed down the years because of its location behind the later Iron Curtain and of it being of no interest to the Soviets!

Now, post-Fall of the Berlin Wall, a team of archaeologists, lead by Briton Peter Doyle (his father was a POW in Stalag VIIIb) & American Larry Babits, (whose late father was a US bomber pilot with a reputation for always getting his air-crew safely home), have located and excavated this important war-time legacy from its sandy tomb in what is now a rather beautiful Polish silver-birch forest.

Over a three week period in August they located the actual entrance to the ‘Harry’ and in the course of this dig the team also stumbled across another tunnel, called ‘George’, whose exact position had not been charted, though this one was never used as the 2,000 remaining prisoners were forced to march to other camps as the Red Army approached Stalag III in January of 1945.

But it was during this recent excavation of ‘Harry’ that Peter & Larry, watched on by veterans of the original war-time tunnel construction, discovered many remarkable secrets that still abide within this 111-yard long wood-lined passageway out from the camp and under the former perimeter fences and tantalisingly close to what was, back then the surrounding woods. (The camp having been designed with all its POW huts on legs and away from the perimeter fences and a large swathe of woodland outside of those same perimeter fences felled and cleared so the Luftwaffe guards could, supposedly, always see what their prisoners were always up to!)

As all of us avid Great Escape movie-watchers know full well, the first tragedy of this daring  ‘Boy’s Own’ escape (conducted under British military leadership along the lines of the rules of cricket), was that the eventual opening of the completed tunnel came up dangerously short of the wood and so the escapees would have to come up with the risk of being spotted by the Luftwaffe guard’s watch-towers. This is why, despite help from a well-timed Allied air-raid just as the escape was on and the fact that one of the first out of the tunnel remained just inside the wood and dropped a rope back into the tunnel, giving two tugs to those within to indicate when the Luftwaffe guard had reached the far end of his patrol and it was safe to emerge, only 76 of the planned 200 prisoners got out and into the welcoming protective cover of the forest.

Having first found the concealed tunnel entrance in the ruins of what was originally POW Hut 104, the modern archaeologists excitingly then uncovered the ‘fake’ concrete panel that had disguised the tunnel opening inside the hut, then one of the metal hooks fashioned by the POWS to help with its removal. After this the team then dug down some 30 feet  into the sandy forest loam to uncover the tunnel itself and found that many of the originally harvested hut bed-boards, which had been used in mining fashion all those years previously to shore up the tunnel to stop it collapsing were all, incredibly still in position and expertly doing their protective job even today!

The original ventilation shaft, ingeniously crafted from used powdered milk containers known as ‘Klim Tins’, (milk backwards) was still in working order and as they moved further down through the excavation site, the team also found many parts of old metal buckets, hammers & crowbars, all cleverly fashioned into tools of many & varied designs in 1944 by the POWS from scavenged bits of metal and then used to hollow out the escape shaft & tunnel.

In all a total of some 600 Allied prisoners-of-war worked on three tunnels nicknamed Tom, Dick & Harry at the same time, (with the hope that if the German guards discovered one of them…as actually happened… then they could continue working on the other two), and these tiny shafts were just 2 feet square for most of their full length… not a happy undertaking for those suffering claustrophobia..!

Originally lit by candles made from fat skimmed off the top of their meagre bowls of Ox soup, later scavenging harvested enough wire for the former electricians within the prisoner escape teams to be able to secretly plumb into the German supply and have electric light along the lengths of all 3 tunnels… and so it was that on the night of March 24 & 25 1944, 76 Allied airmen successfully escaped through Harry, complete with their fake identity papers, suitcases and expertly mocked-up German military uniforms & civilian garb.

Barely a third of the originally-planned 200 prisoners managed to get through the tunnel and into the woods before the Allied air-raid was over, and the camp floodlights came back on and the 77th escapee was spotted by an alert German guard. At this point ‘the balloon truly went up’ and all of the remaining escapees in the tunnel were discovered and, along with those waiting in the huts for their chance, were rounded up inside the camp… but not before a great deal of the precious fake German documents forged in the previous year were quickly put to the flame inside the huts..!

3 Allied airmen successfully made it back home to fight again but in the second tragedy of this whole episode, some 50 POWS were rounded up and handed over to the Gestapo and such was Hitler’s apoplexy at this enormous breach of security that orders were given for all 50 prisoners to be executed by firing squad! But something I had not known until watching this excellent documentary was that the Luftwaffe Camp Commandant was so horrified by this cold-blooded killing of so many of the rounded-up POWS that in an amazing act of contrition, he allowed surviving prisoners from Stalag Luft III to go outside of the camp to build a memorial to their murdered airmen Comrades. Still there today it is interesting to note that the memorial missed off the final numeral: it reading just 1939 to 194 because, of course, those surviving prisoners didn’t know when the war would end.

But back to the actual tunnel excavation itself and from the film we learned that in all some 90 boards from bunk-beds, 62 tables, 34 chairs and 76 benches, as well as thousands of items including knives, spoons, forks, towels & blankets were all squirreled away by the Allied prisoners to help aid their ultimate escape plan, which successfully took place right under the noses of their Luftwaffe captors despite the German attempts to ‘keep a lid on things’.

Although the Hollywood movie suggested otherwise (and the Steve McQueen motorcycle sequence is a true motion-picture classic moment), no Americans actually escaped through the tunnel as all of the USAAF airmen involved for many months in the preparation of the tunnels allied to all of the required forgery and costume creations for such an operation were transferred, at the last minute, to another camp that had been built to specifically imprison just downed American bomber-crew and fighter pilots.

However, as is often the case with Hollywood producers rewriting World War Two history as they are oft wont do: (i.e. anything to do with D-Day always seems to forget British & Canadian troops storming the nearby beaches of Gold, Juno & Sword, that the spectacular capture of a Top Secret Enigma machine from a German U-Boot was undertaken by Royal Naval personnel not, as in last night’s film U571, by US seamen or, indeed in that awful CGI-dominated film Pearl Harbor, where the impression was given that just one US airman flying with the RAF had been personally responsible for winning the Battle of Britain single- handedly ..thus stretching the meaning of ‘The Few’ to a quite extraordinary length!)

However whilst American air-crew personnel were very much involved in the vital planning stages of the Great Escape, on the day of the break-out the POW’s were presominantly British, Canadians, Poles, ANZACS & South Africans and this modern day dig, (brilliantly interspersed for TV with some superb actor-recreations, something readers of my Blogs-various know I don’t usually rate), really was a wonderfully engrossing and modern day telling of this amazing war-time story.

Now all these years on from 1944 along with the several American veterans watching the excavation with rapt interest was Gordie King, a former RAF radio operator who, luckily for him in the end, was 140th in line for ‘Harry’ and so didn’t get away. As a result he lived to tell his story and to see the tunnel briefly opened up to the world & recorded on film, before being filled back in and hidden away from the world’s gaze once more.: ‘This brings back such bitter-sweet memories,’ he said, wiping away a tear, ‘I’m amazed by what they’ve found..!’

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden…

One of the many World War Two German music tracks that we are often asked for here at Tomahawk Films is the Funeral March, better known as Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden which, as the Second World War unfolded and fortunes began slowly but surely to turn against Nazi Germany, it was a haunting song that was sadly heard more & more across The Third Reich…

Included in the huge loss of German life during the Second World War were many highly talented German career & part-time military musicians who were killed at their home garrisons as Allied air-raids took hold from 1943 onwards; in addition a very high number of superb Waffen-SS musicians who transferred back to their units as infantrymen & combat medics (along with many Wehrmacht musicians dramatically transferred to front or second line units during that final year of war) were to be tragically killed in action. As a result, many wonderful musical careers were to be cut short in a swift and brutal fashion!

So it was that the German funeral hymn, officially known as ’Der Gute Kamerad’ (The Good Comrade) but commonly referred to in Germany as ‘Ich hatt’ einen Kameraden’ (I had a Comrade), became an all too regular and poignant part of German life as the tide of war dramatically began to turn against the Third Reich:

1. I once had a trusty comrade

The best one to be found

The drums called us to battle

He was marching at my side

Wherever to I went, Wherever to I went…

2. There whistling came a bullet

Meant for me or meant for you?

His life it took away

At my feet he lay down slain

Just like a part of me, Just like a part of me…

3. His hand reaches out for mine

While I just load my gun

Cannot hold your hand, my friend

But stay for all eternity

My trusty good comrade, My trusty good comrade…

The lyrics of this moving & dignified piece were written by the German poet Ludwig Uhland (1787-1862), who hailed from Swabia, the area around Stuttgart, and who’d been influenced greatly by the freedom struggles of the Tyrolean region. Due to be published in a Karlsruhe newspaper (along with 3 other songs) under the title ‘Four Lovely New War Songs for the Benefits of the Invalids of the Campaign’, Uhland’s manuscript arrived too late…

However, three years later, Justinus Kerner included the song in his 1812 collection: ‘Deutscher Dichterwald’ (A Forest of German Poets) to commemorate the 15,000 men from Württemberg who, sold into military service under Napoleon, were leaving for the Russian campaign. Though the tune is attributed to the Swabian composer Friedrich Silcher (1789-1860), its true origin, as Silcher always pointed out, actually comes from the old Swiss folk song: ‘Ein schwarz-braunes Mädchen hat einen Feldjäger lieb’ (a black-brown girl fell in love with an infantryman).

Silcher re-recorded this tune on one of his visits to Switzerland and re-arranged it into four-four time on his return, whereupon in 1827 it was published in conjunction with Uhland’s lyrics which, with a mixture of grief, fatalism and a soldierly sense of duty, have always touched German hearts. The same applies to the tune, though it did not become an official part of the funeral ceremony until the 19th century.

A formal funeral march was originally played at such solemn events, followed by the hymn ‘Jesus meine Zuversicht’ (Jesus my Trust), and it became a long standing German custom that both a march & hymn be played together on such occasions; but from 1871 ‘Der Gute Kamerad’ was played at all official military funerals..

However from the 1914-18 War onwards, ’Der Gute Kamerad’ became an essential part of the ceremony at German state military funerals, including that of President Hindenburg’s in 1934 where, according to established procedure, the tune would only be played during, or after the lowering of the coffin, never before 

Across north-west Europe, in the last bitter months of the war before the final surrender of German arms in May 1945, vast POW camps began filling up with Wehrmacht and Waffen-SS prisoners and though totally exhausted and dejected at the final annihilation, many were quietly grateful to have survived such a destructive war..!

For them, ‘Ich hatt einen Kameraden’ (of which Tomahawk Films offers a superb rendition on our CD: Music of Adolf Hitler’s Leibstandarte-SS), was a constant reminder of their comrades who weren’t so lucky!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013