Third Reich Spielleute…

As one thought or action invariably leads onto another so, as the bugler and drummer/fifer are forever linked historically down the ages, did I find myself moving from former naval cadet bugler to rock-drummer with ‘Adam West and the Gotham City Rockers’, amongst other bands, early on in my pre-television professional life.

However, like many other tub-thumpers I have also endured much stick as a result, for we un-sung souls, (beavering away at the back of the stage to ensure the ‘rock gods’ in the spotlight at the front kept time & looked good), are always the much-mocked ones and never taken seriously by our fellow musicians… though have you ever tried playing a full 5-piece rock kit and seen just how difficult it is? So perhaps having mastered this complex instrument myself I wasn’t quite the knuckle-dragger as depicted by the ‘real’ musos!

However on the basis of ‘once a drummer, always a drummer’ my continued long–time interests in the infantry bugle also helped keep alive, (once I’d given up active rock drumming), my interest in the snare-drum in its military role with the company bugler and drummer & fifers… an integral part of any military column throughout history.

Markedly different from the ‘standard’ German military musician and forever at the head of the company on the march, the Spielleute…literally playing people… have, with their fife & drums, (together with my beloved signalhorn), seemingly forever been a part of military lore. In fact the fife is very much an historical instrument in its own right having been given to the world by the ancient Greeks, and then picked up by Swiss mercenaries who used them in conjunction with drums as far back as The Middle Ages.

Adopted by the British army in the 18th century, the Third Reich’s Hitlerjugend was to take to fife & drumming with a great enthusiasm and ready zeal in the 1930s and today fifes, (along with bugles), are always associated with drums, with the German military term Trommelflöte in fact meaning ‘drum flute’. Made of black ebony and normally tuned in C of normal tuning the fife (or Pfeife in German) measured approximately 15 inches in length and when not being played was kept in a brown or black leather fife case suspended from the bugler or drummer’s leather belt to the rear of his bayonet and frog.

However, the oldest of all the military instruments is the snare or side-drum dating right back to The Crusades and, used in conjunction with the fife, was an effective way of keeping an army in step and on the move; like bugles they were also used to signal & transmit orders. In the 17th century, German armies went into quarters during the winter until a spring offensive could be launched, with soldiers being billeted in a town or village and with only the locals inns and hostelries for entertainment.

To encourage the soldiers to return to their billets at the end of the evening, the inn-keepers would turn their ale-taps off promptly at 10pm. This ‘witching hour’ would then be communicated to inn-keepers and soldiers alike by the garrison drummers who, in the company of an officer and sergeant, would set off around the town beating out a rhythm, whilst checking and ensuring all soldiers were on the move. From this action the word Tattoo’ which we are all now very familiar with in today’s military phraseology is thought to have been coined, derived directly from the Dutch phrase: Doe-Den-Tap-Toe or ‘Turn The Taps Off’!

Wehrmacht snare drum barrels were made of a brass and their batter heads made from calf-skin whilst snares were made from four catgut cords which were strung tightly across the lower drum skin and were held in place by a brass knob on one side and a hook and cord-screw on the corresponding side opposite. The skins were held in place by a wooden inner ring and an outer ring, the latter having a thin covering of copper, and the complete drum was held together by 5 stretching screws  evenly spaced around the body. Additionally a piece of strong curved wire, either covered in field-grey cloth or bound in leather, was riveted to the drum’s bottom rings as protection for the drummer’s trousers or breeches…

By a German army order of August 1933, all military snare and side drums were to be painted white on the inside and on top of the wooden drum rings, whilst the outsides should have 39 red lacquered isosceles triangles along the outer edge, with 39 black triangles along the bottom edge, both pointing inwards, with the resulting squares pattern formed between the triangles in white.

Whilst Luftwaffe and Heer & Waffen-SS snare drums had a standard brass barrel, it was custom and practice for the Kriegsmarine to over-paint the brass in a dark or medium blue. Hitler Youth & Sturm Abteilung snare drums, produced in 3 differing sizes, were painted in red and white alternating triangles, whilst those of the Allgemeine-SS & Waffen-SS sported alternating black and white triangles… and if you actually get to see or handle one ‘in the flesh’ very attractive items they are too…

Incidentally, talking of the Spielleute and their musical armoury of fife, drum & signalhorn, (another subject I write about in some length in the Tomahawk Films-produced book The Military Music & Bandsmen of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-45), the bugle itself was originally developed, way back in the dim & distant past by the French as a hunting accessory. In fact ‘bugle’ is actually the French word for ‘young bull’ and it was to be the German & French armies that adopted the instrument for military use, and its primary role was in the passing of signals on the battlefield and in camp, including ‘To Arms’ or ‘Last Post’.

As such it soon became an instrument of major significance within the German military, with all units parading its own signalling bugler.

However, finally as a sign-off for this particular Blog, whilst having dwelt primarily on the subject of the snare drum, though not an instrument of the Spielleute but very much harking back to those aforementioned Swiss and indeed German mercenaries of the Middle Ages, is the Landsknecht drum that was peculiar to the Hitler Youth and Deutsche Jungvolk. Certainly a most formidable-looking and very attractive military instrument, its skins were made from calf-hide, and its wooden drum rings were secured top and bottom by rope cords tautened by leather thongs.

Often used en-masse as part of the formidable Nazi propaganda machinery, these impressive drums were worn suspended on a black leather strap over the right shoulder and hanging down at an angle on the drummer’s left and in place of the standard drum-sticks, it was played by two cane-stick beaters with thick white felt pads on the end…

The usual or standard colour-scheme for these beautiful drums was a most dramatic, almost vivid red & white burning flame design for drums paraded by the Hitler Youth, and a similar black & white flame design for the Landsknecht drums of the  Deutsche Jungvolk. The DJ drums also appeared as a very dramatic design of black with a white runic device to the front. In terms of drum size, as with military snare drums, smaller sizes for the shorter boys were produced and issued.

In addition, though a musical instrument forever linked with the propaganda film newsreels of Hitler’s Germany, they were also used later on in great numbers in post-war East Germany, where they were repainted in blue & yellow of the FDJ and re-issued for use by the myriad Communist Youth bands, so as the saying goes: ‘the apple never falls far from the tree’!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

The Music of Hitler’s Luftwaffe…

In 1935, almost immediately after its inception, the training arm of the Luftwaffe’s Musikkorps was keen to announce its arrival on the military music scene, and introduced a very distinctive style of symphonic brass music to emphasise this newest, youngest and most special arm of the Wehrmacht and the newly-appointed Luftwaffenmusikinspizient (Director of Music) Professor Hans Felix Husadel was to be its driving force and a very great musical reformer & German air force ‘musical visionary’.

In 1935 it was Husadel who introduced the saxophone to the Luftwaffe’s musical inventory, breaking a long-held boycott of this, supposedly, ‘Negro instrument’, along with the full range of clarinets, bass trumpet & alto-slide trombone; in addition, the much-beloved traditional rotary valves were replaced on the bass trumpet by pump valves!

Prof. Husadel also ordered the openings of the higher-pitched instruments be narrowed so as to gain a greater sharpness & clarity of sound. He also engaged composers to write specifically for the new arm, including Erwin Dressel & Bruno Stein, who developed a modern style of military band music more akin to the British & American ‘Sousa’ than the traditional Prusso-German marches.

With an on-going lack of written scores being reported as ‘a serious shortcoming in the field of brass music’ in the 1938/39 annual report of the Reichsverband für Volksmusik (National Folk Music Association), Prof. Husadel introduced his own compositions (including Fliegerfanfare and the marches Geschwader Horst Wessel and Kampfgeschwader Richthofen.)  He also introduced the new silver-plated look of the  instruments to replace the standard army and navy brass finishes, thereby ensuring that a modern look and sound for the Luftwaffe’s military bands was guaranteed and this success was fundamental in promoting a real feeling of elitism and pride in the newest military arm of the Third Reich.

All Luftwaffe regiments and squadron wings ( Geschwader) paraded both a Musikkorps and a fife & drum Spielleute and regimental battalions only operated a band when stationed in garrison towns, and then only a small band, to ensure compliance with the regulations that each garrison was to be musically represented to some degree. All Luftwaffen-Musikkorps and Spielleute came under the command of the unit’s regimental headquarters and differed in size and instrumentation, depending on their intended role.

The Musikkorps of the elite General Göring Regiment was the largest of the German Air Force bands which, by the outbreak of war in 1939, comprised some 60 NCOs and airmen, assisted by a very large Spielmannszug comprising 48 NCOs and airmen. Next in terms of manpower was the Staff Band of the Reichs Air Ministry (Stabsmusikkorps des Reichsluftministeriums), with a Musikkorps of 54 NCOs & airmen and a Spielmannszug 16 strong.

The standard Luftwaffenmusikkorps, however, was composed of 40 musicians with an attached fife & drum corps of 16, whilst small garrison bands (including flak battalions, air signal battalions and headquarter bases, or Fliegerhorst Kommandanturen) were 30 musicians strong with a Spielmannszug of 12 NCOs and airmen.

As the Wehrmacht rapidly increased after mobilisation, not all Musikkorps were able to field full strength bands and in some instances, where a Luftwaffe officer was unable to lead as Musikmeister, senior NCOs took over the role in the designation as Korpsführer.

It was common for military musicians to transfer between branches of service as shortages of specialist musicians, (or advertised vacancies), became evident and so army musicians were often drafted into the Luftwaffe and vice-versa.

As a part of Prof. Husadel’s modernising programme, Hitler’s new arm were most keen to take full advantage of the great advancements taking place within the Third Reich recording industry. Thus the Luftwaffe were amongst the most prolific of the Wehrmacht’s Musikkorps to record on schellack 78rpm and can be spotted on more record labels than perhaps any other, especially Musikkorps der Fliegerhorst Kommandantur Berlin-Staaken, Musikkorps der Flak-Artillerie and of course Musikkorps des Regts.General Göring… all of which elite bands feature on Tomahawk Films’ stunning 14 track CD: Musik der Luftwaffe

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013