Third Reich Spielleute…

As one thought or action invariably leads onto another so, as the bugler and drummer/fifer are forever linked historically down the ages, did I find myself moving from former naval cadet bugler to rock-drummer with ‘Adam West and the Gotham City Rockers’, amongst other bands, early on in my pre-television professional life.

However, like many other tub-thumpers I have also endured much stick as a result, for we un-sung souls, (beavering away at the back of the stage to ensure the ‘rock gods’ in the spotlight at the front kept time & looked good), are always the much-mocked ones and never taken seriously by our fellow musicians… though have you ever tried playing a full 5-piece rock kit and seen just how difficult it is? So perhaps having mastered this complex instrument myself I wasn’t quite the knuckle-dragger as depicted by the ‘real’ musos!

However on the basis of ‘once a drummer, always a drummer’ my continued long–time interests in the infantry bugle also helped keep alive, (once I’d given up active rock drumming), my interest in the snare-drum in its military role with the company bugler and drummer & fifers… an integral part of any military column throughout history.

Markedly different from the ‘standard’ German military musician and forever at the head of the company on the march, the Spielleute…literally playing people… have, with their fife & drums, (together with my beloved signalhorn), seemingly forever been a part of military lore. In fact the fife is very much an historical instrument in its own right having been given to the world by the ancient Greeks, and then picked up by Swiss mercenaries who used them in conjunction with drums as far back as The Middle Ages.

Adopted by the British army in the 18th century, the Third Reich’s Hitlerjugend was to take to fife & drumming with a great enthusiasm and ready zeal in the 1930s and today fifes, (along with bugles), are always associated with drums, with the German military term Trommelflöte in fact meaning ‘drum flute’. Made of black ebony and normally tuned in C of normal tuning the fife (or Pfeife in German) measured approximately 15 inches in length and when not being played was kept in a brown or black leather fife case suspended from the bugler or drummer’s leather belt to the rear of his bayonet and frog.

However, the oldest of all the military instruments is the snare or side-drum dating right back to The Crusades and, used in conjunction with the fife, was an effective way of keeping an army in step and on the move; like bugles they were also used to signal & transmit orders. In the 17th century, German armies went into quarters during the winter until a spring offensive could be launched, with soldiers being billeted in a town or village and with only the locals inns and hostelries for entertainment.

To encourage the soldiers to return to their billets at the end of the evening, the inn-keepers would turn their ale-taps off promptly at 10pm. This ‘witching hour’ would then be communicated to inn-keepers and soldiers alike by the garrison drummers who, in the company of an officer and sergeant, would set off around the town beating out a rhythm, whilst checking and ensuring all soldiers were on the move. From this action the word Tattoo’ which we are all now very familiar with in today’s military phraseology is thought to have been coined, derived directly from the Dutch phrase: Doe-Den-Tap-Toe or ‘Turn The Taps Off’!

Wehrmacht snare drum barrels were made of a brass and their batter heads made from calf-skin whilst snares were made from four catgut cords which were strung tightly across the lower drum skin and were held in place by a brass knob on one side and a hook and cord-screw on the corresponding side opposite. The skins were held in place by a wooden inner ring and an outer ring, the latter having a thin covering of copper, and the complete drum was held together by 5 stretching screws  evenly spaced around the body. Additionally a piece of strong curved wire, either covered in field-grey cloth or bound in leather, was riveted to the drum’s bottom rings as protection for the drummer’s trousers or breeches…

By a German army order of August 1933, all military snare and side drums were to be painted white on the inside and on top of the wooden drum rings, whilst the outsides should have 39 red lacquered isosceles triangles along the outer edge, with 39 black triangles along the bottom edge, both pointing inwards, with the resulting squares pattern formed between the triangles in white.

Whilst Luftwaffe and Heer & Waffen-SS snare drums had a standard brass barrel, it was custom and practice for the Kriegsmarine to over-paint the brass in a dark or medium blue. Hitler Youth & Sturm Abteilung snare drums, produced in 3 differing sizes, were painted in red and white alternating triangles, whilst those of the Allgemeine-SS & Waffen-SS sported alternating black and white triangles… and if you actually get to see or handle one ‘in the flesh’ very attractive items they are too…

Incidentally, talking of the Spielleute and their musical armoury of fife, drum & signalhorn, (another subject I write about in some length in the Tomahawk Films-produced book The Military Music & Bandsmen of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-45), the bugle itself was originally developed, way back in the dim & distant past by the French as a hunting accessory. In fact ‘bugle’ is actually the French word for ‘young bull’ and it was to be the German & French armies that adopted the instrument for military use, and its primary role was in the passing of signals on the battlefield and in camp, including ‘To Arms’ or ‘Last Post’.

As such it soon became an instrument of major significance within the German military, with all units parading its own signalling bugler.

However, finally as a sign-off for this particular Blog, whilst having dwelt primarily on the subject of the snare drum, though not an instrument of the Spielleute but very much harking back to those aforementioned Swiss and indeed German mercenaries of the Middle Ages, is the Landsknecht drum that was peculiar to the Hitler Youth and Deutsche Jungvolk. Certainly a most formidable-looking and very attractive military instrument, its skins were made from calf-hide, and its wooden drum rings were secured top and bottom by rope cords tautened by leather thongs.

Often used en-masse as part of the formidable Nazi propaganda machinery, these impressive drums were worn suspended on a black leather strap over the right shoulder and hanging down at an angle on the drummer’s left and in place of the standard drum-sticks, it was played by two cane-stick beaters with thick white felt pads on the end…

The usual or standard colour-scheme for these beautiful drums was a most dramatic, almost vivid red & white burning flame design for drums paraded by the Hitler Youth, and a similar black & white flame design for the Landsknecht drums of the  Deutsche Jungvolk. The DJ drums also appeared as a very dramatic design of black with a white runic device to the front. In terms of drum size, as with military snare drums, smaller sizes for the shorter boys were produced and issued.

In addition, though a musical instrument forever linked with the propaganda film newsreels of Hitler’s Germany, they were also used later on in great numbers in post-war East Germany, where they were repainted in blue & yellow of the FDJ and re-issued for use by the myriad Communist Youth bands, so as the saying goes: ‘the apple never falls far from the tree’!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

The Sad Demise of HMV…

Tragically, this seemingly never-ending Recession we are in has now claimed yet another victim on the British, (and increasingly world’s) High Street, and this time that great name is HMV..!

After nearly 100 years of trading it would appear that the onward march of technology in the shape of music downloads and on-line shopping, (and we have to admit probabably playing our small part in that too), has finally done for this wonderful old company, whose historical antecedence can be traced back as far as 1890, in fact around the time of the introduction of the original gramophone itself.

1902 saw the establishment of the Gramophone Co. producing schellack records from its factory at Hayes, with their discs appearing in music shops. The first HMV-branded shop opened in 1921 in London’s Oxford Street and in 1931 Gramophone merged with the Columbia Gramophone Co. to form Electric & Musical Industries, (EMI), whilst from the 1930s onwards HMV actually began the manufacturing of televisions & radiograms…

But it was later on in the 1960s & 1970s that HMV really stated to flex its muscles and expand and so begin its steady march to becoming the UK’s leading specialist music retailer & record store, with its flagship store opening on the capital’s Oxford Street in 1986 (so becoming at the time the largest music store in the world), with HMV as a whole company celebrating its 75th anniversary in 1996.

The Channel Islands have two HMV stores: one in Guernsey’s beautiful St Peter Port and the other in Jersey’s capital St Helier and for a number of years Tomahawk Films have been most grateful for their efficient & professional marketing of our Channel Islands Occupied television documentary on DVD and we are therefore very sad to hear that both of these shops and their terrific staff now face a bleak and uncertain future as I write.

So as a company, Tomahawk Films would very much like to send them a message of support and thank them sincerely for everything they have done for my TV documentary and wish all of their staff the very best for their own personal futures, whilst at the same time keeping our fingers crossed that, somewhere out there in the financial world, a buyer will be found for this most historic & iconic of music shop chains that most of us have actually grown up alongside… for it will be very sad indeed to see HMV finally shut up shop if it cannot indeed be rescued..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

Partnered with Pay Pal..

Tomahawk are very pleased to announce that we are again partnered with the leading on-line payment bank PayPal and are delighted once more to offer our many customers around the world this quick, easy & secure method of paying for your Tomahawk Films’ CD or DVDs …though talking of secure, we are proud to still have our on-line credit-card payments also handled by our corporate partners at Barclaycard, through which we gratefully accept VISA, MasterCard, Maestro & Solo payments cards.

Happily by using either welcome payment method you are guaranteed to have your purchase and its subsequent payment securely handled through Tomahawk Film’s eCommerce department, so giving you that extra peace-of-mind when kindly buying on-line from us.

Also worth mentioning that we still have our famous printed Tomahawk Films catalogue which automatically goes out with every order we receive via our website, but please free to request just a copy of this catalogue initially if you would like to have a look through our selection of WW-II German Archival products before a possible purchase..we are very happy to post them out anywhere in the world..and do..!

I think it will be a long time before we finally ditch our little printed catalogue altogether, (and when we do that will a very sad day as we have been producing a  Tomahawk Films WW-II German Archive catalogue in its various forms for over 25 years!),  as we know from the many telephone calls we receive here in the Tomahawk Films’ Production Offices that, computers are all well and good, but many customers still want to sit down in the evening  in the comfort of their arm-chair with a beer or cup of coffee to hand and have a quiet read-up before trudging over to the computer to place an order via the Tomahawk Films’ WW-II German Archive website..!

….and we find that many catalogue order-forms still happily arrive in the post from all over the world and so we will be delighted to keep running that  ‘hard copy’ side of our mail-order business for as long as our valued customers around the globe still want us to..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2012