Taps..!

For British & Commonwealth Forces it is the moving ‘Last Post’ whilst for Germans it is the haunting ‘Ich hatt einen Kameraden’: both tunes guaranteed to stir the souls of veterans especially when played at military ceremonials or periods of official Remembrance.. But what of the American equivalent?

My first experience of the U.S. military’s most revered tune was, as the sole journalist on the Friendly Convoy, standing amidst American graves high on the cliff above D-Day’s ‘Omaha Beach’. Around me, Veterans of the US 79th Infantry Division had gathered at this famous cemetery, (made all the more so by its inclusion in the opening scenes of ‘Saving Private Ryan’), to honour comrades who had fallen during the Allied invasion of Hitler’s Fortress Europe on June 6th 1944.

As those wonderful veterans, widows, friends & family gathered at the foot of the statue for American Youth, the sound of ‘Taps’ was born high on the wind and over the invasion beach as heads lowered and tears welled in this unbelievably beautiful and tranquil resting place for tens of thousands of young GI’s so far from their home-land..!.

It is anybody’s sad guess just how many times this American call-to-arms has been played down the years, in how many far-flung wars and for just how many lost sons of the United States, but where does this simple tune originate from… and how has it become so ingrained in the American military psyche?

The story is actually very simple, but totally heart-rending: it came about in 1862 in the American Civil War when Union Army Captain Robert Ellicombe was marshalling his troops near Harrison’s Landing in the State of  Virginia and facing the Confederate Army, who were on the other side of a narrow strip of ‘no-man’s land’.

During one night, Ellicombe heard the moans of a soldier who lay mortally wounded on the battlefield and, not knowing if the soldier was a Union or Confederate, the Captain decided to take his life into his own hands and try to bring the stricken soldier back to his side of the lines for medical attention. Crawling out under enemy gunfire, Captain Ellicombe reached the wounded soldier and began to slowly drag him back, but when he finally succeeded in reaching his own lines, he discovered that not only was the soldier a Confederate, but he was already dead.

With a heavy heart the Captain lit a lantern, then caught his breath and going numb with shock as in the dim light he saw the face of the soldier and recognised that of his own son!  It later transpired that his boy had been studying music in the Deep South when the war had broken out, and without telling his father, had joined the Confederate Army..!

The following morning the heartbroken Union officer sought permission of his superiors to give his son a full military burial with a Union Army band in attendance, despite his ‘enemy’ status. But the Union High Command refused to grant him the full ceremonial he craved because his boy was a soldier in the Confederate Army, but out of respect for his father, granted him a single musician to mark the burial.

Captain Ellicombe chose a lone bugler and asked that he play from a sheet of musical notes found in his music student son’s uniform pocket… and so the haunting American funeral march that we now know as ‘Taps, was born:

Day is done, Gone the sun,

From the Lakes, From the hills, From the sky,

All is well, Safely rest, God is nigh…

Fading light, Dims the sight, And a star gems the sky, Gleaming bright,

From afar, Drawing nigh, Falls the night…

Thanks and praise, For our days, ‘Neath the sun, ‘Neath the stars, ‘Neath the sky,

As we go, This we know, God is nigh….’

                                                      Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013

Stand-up, Hook-up & Hit the D.Z..!

It’s just as green and beautiful as I remember!”… the first words of former Private Billie Taylor of the US 193rd Glider Infantry Regiment as he stepped down from the coach that had brought him back to the former World War Two RAF air-base at Chilbolton near Winchester in Hampshire one beautiful Autumnal Saturday morning some years ago…

In late 1943 Chilbolton had became the home to members of the US 17th & 82nd Airborne Divisions, in advance of their deployment in the assault on the Normandy coast and in support of full-scale Allied operations on the ground; and for Billie and his wife Frances this long trip from their home in Indiana marked an emotional return to British soil for the first time since war’s end!

It was also to be just the start of an even longer pilgrimage to the Belgian Ardennes, the location in 1944 of the cauldron that was the Battle of the Bulge thence to the Rhine and ultimately on to Berlin, arranged through MilSpecTravel in association with Libertyroad.com, a specialist travel company offering battlefield & military tours for US veterans of World War Two under the expert eye of specialist tour guide Mr Patrick Hinchey.

In fact it was Patrick who was later to be the expert guide on the 2000 ‘Friendly Convoy’ when as the only journalist invited along, I had the real & most emotional honour of travelling back to the D-Day beaches of Normandy and on into Alsace-Lorraine in the wonderful company of Veterans & Widows of the US 79th Infantry Division; thence later with Patrick as my own personal guide, when I travelled to Bad Kreuznach in Germany to interview former Musikmeister of the Musikkorps 12.SS-Panzerdivision ‘Hitlerjugend’  SS-Hauptscharführer Gustav Weissenborn, for my book‘The Military Music & Bandsmen of Adolf Hitler’s Third Reich 1933-1945’…

But back to Billie’s pilgrimage and, arriving in England soon after its formation in mid-1943, under the motto ‘Thunder from Heaven’, the 17th Airborne, (boasting one parachute & two WACO glider regiments), first saw combat in Europe in December 1944, during the Battle of the Bulge, thence in March 1945, the division had the honour of making America’s first & only airborne assault into an enemy heartland as they crossed the River Rhine into Germany in Operation Varsity….

As Billie’s memory-laden return to England continued to unfold before him, I was able to quietly observe this modest man from a distance as he took in this former war-time British airfield spread out all about him; and I could see that faraway look come into his eyes, a look that I have seen on so many occasions with many combat veterans, Allied & German, both here & overseas.

In my journalistic experience, it is a look that only men who have actually fought in combat take on… and I’ve come to realise that when I see it, it’s sometimes best not to say a thing as all their thoughts come flooding back: action seen, good buddies lost, life perhaps that could only have minutes more to run as mortal danger threatens to envelope them!

Some combat soldiers, like Al Sepulveda, a heavily decorated US 82nd Airborne Veteran from Los Angeles, who parachuted into Occupied Europe at 2.25am on the morning of ‘D-Day’ 6th of June 1944, again later at St Mere Eglise, (a jump immortalised in the film ‘The Longest Day’) and at Nimegen and who was awarded a Silver Star at Oosterbeck, will want to talk about their war and share all its details… whilst others will just want to slowly slip away from the crowds and quietly relect on their own.

Billie was in the latter camp, so I just stood silently in the shadows under the trees watching him as he cast his gaze slowely around the former combat glider airstrip around him and so obviously recalled a previous life spent here in a small part of the beautiful English countryside.

Then after a long while alone with his prized & personal memories, the reflective mood of the afternoon was broken as party of British combat veterans wearing their prized airborne forces red berets respectfully appeared and offered their personal welcome to all of the American veterans present at a small ceremony of remembrance.

In a ceremony befitting such a WW-II Veteran visit, both American & British Unit Colours & Honours were presented and wreaths laid at the memorial commemorating the vital role that this former World War Two airfield played in the build-up to the D-Day assault on the French coast of Normandy and thence all future Allied airborne drops over Occupied Europe…

Then the formal mood of Remembrance lifted as the American party was escorted by their former British paratrooper compatriots into the nearby village of Chilbolton; here they were able to finally enjoy a rare treat that many of them had not tasted since 1945: a traditional cream-tea that is now a regular custom laid on by the Hampshire locals who regularly play host to many returning former US airborne troops whom, as younger men, had become a regular & much-loved part of the village fabric back in those turbulent & momentous years of 1943 & 1944.

Then following a few precious hours in the Britain’s ancient capital, the nearby City of Winchester, and a moving Vin d’Honneur, (a simple but truly heartfelt formal ceremony of welcome), by the City’s Fathers to these returning WW-II Veterans, at which I was proudly made an Honourary Member of the 17th Airborne Division Association, it was back on to the coach in preparation for their trip across the Channel and onto the continental leg of their European pilgrimage….

As in the final months of World War Two these former US airborne warriors would once again be facing another reception by German parachute forces… though on this occasion it would be a much anticipated, (and this time friendly!), reception in the lovely small German town of Wesel… and by the very Fallschirmjäger ground troops they last met and fought when they jumped & glided in on top of them during Operation Varsity in March 1945!

Where once their one and only aim was that of killing each other, now these Allied & German veteran soldiers would embrace each other as firm friends… truly, war is a strange thing..!

Copyright @ Brian Matthews 2013